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Flashcards in Rapid Review Deck (225):
1

Silver staining shows focal disruption of glomerular basement membranes and crescent formation within Bowman's space

ANCA glomerulonephritis

2

hematuria and hemoptysis

Goodpasture's

3

tuberous sclerosis

angiomyolipoma

4

encodes protein for ubiquitin ligase complex promoting degradation of protein which promotes cell growth and angiogenesis

VHL gene promotes degradation of HIF-1

5

granular deposition of IgA within mesangium

IgA nephropathy

6

perinephric abscess

acute pyelonephritis (from pyonephrosis)

7

granular casts

acute tubular necrosis

8

double contour basement membrane

type I MPGN

9

stenosis of renal artery

renovascular hypertension

10

double-contour basement membrane, with mesangial interposition and prominent subendothelial deposits

Type I MPGN

11

Schiller Duval bodies

yolk sac tumors

12

blastemal, stromal, epithelial cell types with abortive tubules or glomeruli

Wilms tumor 

13

central and transitional zones of prostate

BPH

14

subepithelial humps

PSGN

15

nephrocalcinosis

renal tubular acidosis

16

decreased vitamin D 

chronic renal failure

17

tubilitis or endarteritis

acute cellular allograft rejection

18

increased mesangial matrix, basement membrane thickened w/ segmental splitting

Type II MPGN

19

antibody antigen reactions in podocytes and basement membrane

Minimal change disease

20

type I hypersensitivity, basophils, IgE

acute tubulointerstitial nephritis

21

radiolucent

uric acid - not visible on x-ray

22

cyclophosphamide

bladder cancer and hemorrhagic cystitis

23

strongly eosinophilic cells with numerous mitochondria

renal oncocytoma tumors

24

Celiac disease

IgA nephropathy

25

fetal appearance with immature glomeruli and cartilage surrounding mesenchyme

multicystic dysplastic kidney

26

loss of function of tumor suppressor gene VHL on chromosome 3

clear cell renal cell carcinoma

27

dilated atrophic tubules with eosinophilic hyaline casts

thyroidization of chronic pyelonephritis

28

ETS overexpression

prostate adenocarcinoma resistant to androgen blockade

29

thickened basement membrane and mesangium

stage II diabetic nephropathy

30

Fanconi's syndrome

type II renal tubular acidosis; proximal tubule

31

glomerular lobulation is accentuated. Increased mesangial cells and matrix capillary wall

Type I MPGN

32

postrenal azotemia

bilateral outflow obstruction

33

epithelial cells retraction of cytoplasm from basement membrane, development of microvilli

minimal change disease

34

hyaline casts in distal tubule and collecting ducts, interstitial edema and leukocytes

acute renal failure

35

proliferation of capillary endothelial cells

PSGN

36

C3 and properdin deposits in BM

Type II MPGN

37

metastasizes to lungs and bone marrow

renal cell carcinoma

38

edema, metabolic acidosis, and hyperkalemia

chronic renal failure

39

loss of genomic imprinting of IGF2

Beckwith-Wiedemann

40

immune complexes found in mesangial cells

SLE membranous nephropathy

41

large cystic dilation of the kidney with atrophic cortex

irreversible changes due to obstruction leading to hydronephrosis

42

granular appearance due to IgG and C3 deposition along GBM

PSGN

43

acute pancreatitis

acute tubular necrosis

44

Beckwith-Wiedemann

Wilms tumor nephroblastoma

45

fibrin in Bowman's space

RPGN

46

thickening of basement membrane

membranous nephropathy

47

IgA deposits in mesangium

IgA Nephropathy

48

loss of function mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor genes

angiomyolipoma and tuberous sclerosis

49

peripheral zones of prostate

prostate adenocarcinoma

50

cells with clear cytoplasm containing glycogen

seminomas

51

Diffuse thickening of glomerular capillary BM and increased amount of mesangial matrix with mild mesangial cell proliferation (mesangial enlargement)

Diabetic nephropathy

52

crystalline like lattices on electron microscopy

polyomavirus

53

capillary wall thickening, hypercellularity and small crescents

Type II MPGN

54

small kidney with tubular ischemic atrophy without much interstitial fibrosis

fibromuscular dysplasia

55

collagen deposition in mesangium and capillary loops and plasma proteins in glomerular structures

FSGS

56

ureaplasma urealyticum

chronic abacterial prostatitis

57

Increased mesangium and BM thickness

Diabetic nephropathy

58

medullary sponge kidney

nephrolithiasis

59

central scarring

renal oncocytoma

60

Congo red stain

amyloid nephropathy

61

fusion of foot processes

nephrotic in general, minimal change disease, and diabetic nephropathy

62

exposure to asbestos

renal cell carcinoma

63

diffuse granular staining of capillary walls for IgG and C3 and for terminal complement components: MAC C5b, C6 - C9

membranous nephropathy

64

abnormal bumpy shape of kidney

chronic pyelonephritis

65

alpha 3 chain of type IV collagen

Goodpasture's

66

Hypercellular and enlarged glomeruli, neutrophils; proliferation of capillary endothelial cells

PSGN

67

pinkish fibrin like material found in vessel wall replacing viable cells which are now dead

fibrinoid necrosis - HTN

68

eosinophilic cells with numerous mitochondria

renal oncocytoma

69

uteropelvic obstruction or ureteral atresia

multicystic dysplastic kidney

70

lead exposure

uric acid stones

71

2-napthylamine exposure

transitional cell carcinoma of bladder

72

thickening of medial arterial smooth muscle alternating with atrophy

fibromuscular dysplasia

73

subendothelial deposits and lobulated glomeruli; increased mesangial cells and basement membrane

Type I MPGN

74

placental morphology containing malignant trophoblast with malignant synctriotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast cells present

choriocarcinoma

75

sickle cell disease

FSGS

76

fibromuscular dysplasia

renovascular hypertension

77

tumor lysis syndrome seen with chemotherapy

uric acid stones

78

thryoidization

chronic pyelonephritis

79

cryptochordism or undescended testes

seminomas

80

Bcl-2 and Bcl-x

anti apoptotic

81

pregnancy

UTIs and acute pyelonephritis

82

anemia

ESRD

83

gynecomastia

Leydig cell tumors

Choriocarcinoma

84

granular staining for C3 in the capillary walls and mesangium

Type I MPGN

85

peripheral eosinophilia

acute tubulointerstitial nephritis

86

diffuse thinning of basement membrane

benign familial hematuria aka thin BM lesion

87

capillary wall thickening, hypercellularity, small crescent

type II MPGN

88

multiple myeloma

amyloid nephropathy with immunoglobulin light chain amyloid

89

mutation in nephrin and podocin

proteinuria - components of slit diaphragm

90

radiographic contrast media

acute tubular necrosis

91

irregular thickening of BM, lamination of lamina densa, foci of rarefaction

Alport syndrome

92

fatty change followed by necrosis

acute renal failure due to carbon tetrachloride

93

fibrinoid necrosis

very high blood pressure

94

proliferation of parietal cells, infiltration of monocytes and macrophages

RPGN

95

mutation in dibasic acid transporter

cystinuria

96

chronic TB

amyloid nephropathy with serum amyloid A protein

97

hyaline atherosclerosis

essential HTN affects afferent arteriole

diabetes affects both arterioles (but efferent more so)

98

renal papillary necrosis seen in?

diabetes and acute pyelonephritis

99

calcification within tubules and interstitium

nephrocalcinosis

100

induced by mixture of aspirin and phenacetin

renal papillary necrosis

101

lobulated glomeruli, increasing mesangial cells and basement membrane, sub endothelial deposits

type I MPGN

102

thickening of pertibular capillary basement membranes and mesangial widening of glomeruli

chronic cellular allograft rejection

103

activating MET mutations

papillary renal cell carcinoma

104

11p13 germline deletion

Wager syndrome; Wilms' tumor

105

polyomavirus

acute pyelonephritis in immunocomprised along with CMV and adenovirus

106

WBC casts

acute pyelonephritis

107

pleiomorphic cells surrounding a fibrovascular core

papillary transitional carcinoma of bladder

108

pregnancy

acute pyelonephritis, UTI

109

vegan diet

hyperoxaluria -->calcium oxalate stone

110

pelvic irradiation

transitional cell carcinoma of bladder

111

osteomyelitis

type I membranoproliferative GN

112

Henoch-Schonlein purpura

IgA nephropathy

113

precipitate at high pH

calcium phosphate, triple phosphate

114

prominent nucleoli

prostate adenocarcinoma

115

activated c-kit

seminomas

116

aniridia, genital abnormalities, retardation

Wager syndrome - Wilm's tumor

117

Wager syndrome

Wilms tumor nephroblastoma

118

Focal accumulations of mesangial matrix (lipids and fibrin) located in periphery

Kimmelstiel-Wilson Lesions (LM)

119

obesity

FSGS

120

leucine crystals

maple syrup urine disease

121

linear deposits of IgG and C3 in GBM

Goodpasture's

122

beads on string arteriogram

fibromuscular dysplasia

123

mesangial proliferation

IgA Nephropathy

124

symptom - intestinal obstruction

Wilms tumor

125

neutrophils replaced by lymphocytes followed by irregular scar formation which can be visualized on the cortical surface as fibrous depressions

acute pyelonephritis - healing

126

dominant negative inactivating mutation of WT1

Denys-Drash syndrome

127

segmental sclerosis and hyalinosis

FSGS

128

amorphous undigestible acellular material in mesangium or renal tubules

amyloid nephropathy

129

triple phosphate stones

xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis; proteus infection

130

HIV infection

FSGS

131

sub epithelial immune complex deposits between basement membrane and podocytes

membranous nephropathy

132

carbon tetrachloride

acute tubular necrosis

133

edema and inflammation in interstitium

acute tubular necrosis

134

Denys-Drash 

Wilms tumor nephroblastoma

135

bands of capillary wall staining and coarse granular staining for C3 in mesangial cells

Type II MPGN

136

aneurysmal dilations of capillaries

Kimmelstiel Wilson nodules

137

X linked

Alport syndrome

138

mutations in alternative complement pathway (factor H)

type II MPGN

139

Schistosoma

squamous cell carcinoma of bladder

140

pyonephrosis

acute pyelonephritis

141

primary hyperparathyroidism

metastatic calcification

142

cirrhosis

IgA nephropathy

143

Granular “lumpy-bumpy” appearance due to IgG and C3 deposition in capillary walls and mesangium

PSGN

144

gonadal dysgenesis and early onset nephropathy with renal failure

Denys-Drash --> Wilms tumor nephroblastoma

145

sub endothelial deposits

type I MPGN

146

alpha fetoprotein

Schiller Duval bodies of yolk sac tumors

147

IgM and C3 on IF

FSGS

148

IF: trapping of IgM and C3 in the segmental areas of sclerosis and hyalinosis

FSGS

149

sarcoidosis

metastatic calcification granulomatous prostatitis

150

mitochondria of renal tubular epithelial cells contain abundant calcium deposits

nephrocalcinosis

151

avoid ACE inhibitors

renovascular hypertension

152

intrarenal renal failure

acute tubular necrosis

153

exposure to heavy metals

renal cell carcinoma and acute tubular necrosis

154

glomeruli enlarged, hypercellular, neutrophils

PSGN

155

pericarditis

ESRD

156

LINEAR deposits of IgG and C3 in glomerular basement membrane

Goodpasture's

157

Klinefelter's syndrome XXY

seminoma

158

mutation in type IV collagen

Alport syndrome benign familial hematuria (certain chains thereof)

159

mutations in SLC3A1

recessive cystinuria

160

C3 nephritic factor

type II MPGN

161

groups of tubular structures lacking normal interstitial cells without sperm development 

Sertoli cell tumors

162

Crystals of Reinke

Leydig cell tumor

163

sheets or nests of cells surrounded by fibrous bands which are infiltrated by lymphocytes

seminoma

164

interstitium fibrotic with lymphocyte infiltrate

chronic pyelonephritis

165

mutations in SLC7A9

dominant cystinuria

166

posterior urethral valves

UT obstruction, hydronephrosis, acute pyelonephritis

167

intranuclear inclusions and nuclear enlargement 

polyomavirus

168

cutaneous bruising

Henoch-Schonlein purpura

169

precipitate at low pH

calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine

170

pale cortex with hyperemic medullary regions

acute tubular necrosis

171

deafness, eye problems, glomerulonephritis

Alport syndrome

172

BPH

hydronephrosis and acute pyelonephritis

173

osteolytic cancer metastasis

metastatic calcification

174

subepithelial immune complex humps between basement membrane and podocytes

PSGN

175

loss of imprinting of the maternal gene allowing for overexpression of IGF-2

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome --> Wilms tumor nephroblastoma

176

subacute bacterial endocarditis

type I membranoproliferative GN

177

crescent moon shape consisting of fibrin with proliferation of parietal cells and infiltration of monocytes and macrophages

RPGN

178

trophoblast tissue expresses beta hCG 

choriocarcinoma

179

sexual precocity

Leydig cell tumor

180

p16, p53, and loss of chromosome 9

transitional cell carcinoma of bladder

181

urinary loss of amino acids and phosphate

Fanconi's

182

heroin abuse

FSGS

183

hemoptysis

choriocarcinoma

Goodpasture's

any cancer which has lung metastasis 

184

irregular thickening of basement membrane, lamination of lamina dens, foci of rarefaction

Alport Syndrome

185

hypocalcemia 

secondary hyperparathyroidism of chronic renal failure

186

trisomy 7, trisomy 17, loss of Y chromosome

sporadic papillary renal cell carcinoma

187

granulomatous prostatitis

TB, sarcoidosis, fungal infections

188

renal artery vasculitis

fibromuscular dysplasia

189

octahedral crystals

calcium oxalate

190

round shape, clear border, darker center crystals

leucine crystals MSUD

191

dystrophic calcification

calcium phosphate stone

192

hexagonal crystals

cystine

193

inhibitor of cyclin dependent kinase

tumor suppressor gene p16 (INK4A)  in bladder cancer

194

nephritic syndrome s/s

hematuria

mild proteinuria

decreased renal fx manifested as:

edema

oliguria

elevated BUN and Cr

decreased GFR

decreased Na+ delivery to distal tubule can lead to HTN

195

schistocytes

RBCs lysed by extremely high blood pressure

196

wedge shaped scars mixed with relatively normal renal tissue

nephrocalcinosis

197

renal pelvis abscesses

diabetic nephropathy

198

deletion of tumor suppressor gene WT1 on chromosome 11

Wilms' tumor

199

unilateral yellow mass

xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

200

gentamicin

acute tubular necrosis

201

necrosis due to ischemia from poor blood flow

coagulative necrosis

202

hydropic degeneration of PCT

acute renal failure due to ethylene glycol

203

trisomy 7

familial papillary renal cell carcinoma

204

fistulas

xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

205

C3 and properdin deposition in BM

type II MPGN

206

collections of neutrophils within tubules or interstitium

acute pyelonephritis

207

coagulative necrosis without inflammation

ischemic acute tubular necrosis

208

white frost on skin

ESRD

209

metastasizes to liver, lungs, bone marrow

transitional cell carcinoma of bladder

210

unilateral renal agenesis

FSGS

211

risk of spontaneous hemorrhage

angiomyolipoma

212

chlamydia

chronic abacterial prostatitis

213

collapse of glomerular capillaries, increased matrix material (sclerosis), and podocyte

HIV - collapsing pattern of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)

214

hyperphosphatemia

secondary hyperparathyroidism of chronic renal failure

215

congenital mutations in chloride channels leading to increase calcium, phosphate, and amino acids in urine

Dent's disease

216

rheumatoid arthritis

amyloid nephropathy with serum amyloid A protein

217

hypotension, shock

prerenal azotemia

218

neutrophils, coagulative necrosis, and conserved tubule outlines

renal papillary necrosis

219

Hodgkin disease and T cell lymphoma

minimal change disease

220

intramembranous deposits (dense) and thickening of basement membrane

Type II MPGN

221

Sjogren's

type I renal tubular acidosis; distal tubule

222

lipid filled macrophages

xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

223

SLE

membranous nephropathy

224

 

Macrophage accumulation surrounding struvite stones 

xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

225

 

Macrophage accumulation in cortex 

xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis