The cells often have clear cytoplasm which contains (1).
1. glycogen refers to seminomas
They often contain areas of (1) and, unlike most malignancies at other body sites, they can be highly treatable even after metastasis to other tissues.
1. sheets of undifferentiated cells with areas of hemorrhage and necrosis refers to embryonal carcinoma
Immunostaining of the cytoplasm also often shows (1) which is a tyrosine kinase for which there is a targeted therapeutic agent.
1. activated c-kit refers to seminomas
Adolescent patients with (1) tumors can have puberty at an earlier age (precocious puberty).
1. Leydig cell
Because (1) tumors can secrete hormones (androgens, estrogen, corticosteroids) the patients can present with (2)
1. Leydig cell 2. gynecomastia.
The Leydig cells are usually (1) so they generally grow as (2)
1. interstitial (not part of tubules) 2. sheets of cells without a tubular or glandular structure.
Choriocarcinoma; Leydig cell tumor
(1) can also be found arising in the testis and can involve (2) and include tissues such as cartilage, hair, brain tissue, respiratory tissue, or even teeth.
1. Teratomas 2. ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm
The trophoblast tissue expresses (1) which can also be present at elevated levels in the blood.
1. beta human chorionic gonadotropin (Beta hCG) refers to Choriocarcinomas of the testis
(1) is the most common subtype of non-seminoma germ cell tumor.
1. Embryonal carcinoma
Seminomas are more likely to occur in patients with?
cryptorchism or undescended testicle.
Hallmark of Leydig cell tumor
Crystals of Reinke
The most common type of germ cell malignancy is the (1) which are tumors with the histological appearance of (2) surrounded by (3) which are infiltrated by (4)
1. seminoma 2. nests or sheets of cells 3. fibrous bands 4. lymphocytes.
This subtype occurs in older men and only rarely metastasizes.
Most germ cell tumors are thought to arise from (1) cells which are a precursor to the germ cell lesions.
1. intratubal neoplastic
(1) are relatively rare NSGTs which characteristically show a histologic feature known as a Schiller-Duval body which is a (2)
1. Yolk sac tumors 2. capillary surrounded by an epithelial layer.
Although a rare neoplasm, it can be found in infants in whom it has a better prognosis than in older males.
Yolk sac tumors
The neoplasms have a placental morphology containing malignant trophoblast with both malignant syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast cells present.
Choriocarcinomas of the testis
(2) can present with (1) because the primary tumors frequently metastasize to the lung and invade the bronchus.
2. Choriocarcinomas of the testis 1. hemoptysis
Gynecomastia Lump/swelling in testicle Sexual precocity
Leydig cell tumor
Individuals with (1) have an increased risk of germ cell tumors, especially (2)
1. Klinefelter’s syndrome with the XXY genotype 2. seminoma.
Non-seminoma germ cell tumors (NSGT) can occur either as pure examples or as mixtures containing (1) along with another of the subtypes.
1. embryonal carcinoma
A subtype of seminoma known as (1) has the appearance of more mature spermatogonia and even spermatids.
1. spermacytic seminoma
The Sertoli cells are normally present within the (1) and their tumors sometimes reproduce the (2) structures but lack the normal (3), appearing instead as just groups of (4)
1. convoluted seminiferous tubules 2. tubular 3. interstitial cells 4. tubules without sperm development.
Most male testicular tumors are derived from (1) cells which is probably not surprising because they are cells which are destined to contribute to the formation of the entire body.
These bodies can contain (1) which is also found at elevated levels within the blood of these patients.
1. alpha fetoprotein (AFP) found in Schiller Duval bodies found in yolk sac tumors
Gynecomastia Hemoptysis Increased hCG Hemorrhage and necrosis in tumor
Non-seminoma germ cell tumors (NSGT) include?
embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumors, choriocarcinoma, and teratomas.
1) and 2) do NOT arise from the precursor lesion called Intratubular germ cell neoplasia
adult spermatocytic seminoma