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Flashcards in Reading set #1 Deck (23):

Regret as an example of what?

Conter-factual emotion


Regret and related emotions

♠ Disappointment
♠ Sadness
♠ Shame
♠ Guilt
♠ Remorse
♠ Repentance


How does regret function

Rests directly on acknowledged personal culpability. Recognition that the cause of an event was one’s own volition, thereby placing the moral responsibility squarely at one’s own feet.


Criminal behaviour as a best example of what?



Altruistic fear

More common and frequently more intense than personal fear. Husbands were more likely to worry about their wives than vice versa (especially at younger ages) and often exhibited greater concern for their wives than for themselves.


Fear and the mass media

How do these forms of media distortion affect the public, if at all? The evidence on this question is indirect and limited, but it is highly suggestive. In the early 1980s, Warr (1980; see also Bordley, 1982) presented evidence that the objective and perceived incidence of offenses are related by a power function (y = aXb). That is, people tend to systematically overestimate the frequency of rare offenses while underestimating the fre- quency of common ones.


Power function

y = aXb - people tend to systematically overestimate the frequency of rare offenses while underestimating the fre- quency of common ones.


Criminal behaviour = surreptitious behaviour

Those who engage in it actively seek to hide their identity and their behaviour from public and law enforcement scrutiny. This, along with other problems, makes the measurement of crime particularly difficult and, at times, impossible or unethical.


The mass communication of violence

♠ Newspaper - The first truly mass medium to turn to crime for its subject matter - "penny press".


Mystery literature

- Edgar Allan Poe
- Conan Doyle
- Christie


Surette study

“the proportion of television time devoted to crime and violence makes crime the largest single subject matter on television.”


Why such a preoccupation with crime and violence in the mass media?

- Dramatic value
- Intrinsic human interest
- Stories of crime – real or fictional – speak to citizens’ sense of personal safety, and social psychological research suggests that “fear appeals increase attention.


Crime has been attractive to the entertainment media - WHY?

By nature and necessity, most crime is private, secretive, and hidden, surreptitiously committed and studiously concealed. To the degree that entertainment involves escapism and novelty, the backstage nature of crime inherently increases its entertainment value and popularity


Citizens are far more likely to hear about, read about, or watch violent events than to experience them - IMPLICATIONS

- “indirect victimization” (Conklin, 1975), the most pervasive of which is fear of crime.
- Unreliable foundations and beliefs about violence


Survey research on fear of crime

♠ Gallup Organization and the National Opin- ion Research Center (NORC) (est. 1960)
- Hypothetical (how afraid would you be),
- Limited to nighttime
- Does not mention crime, and only crudely measures intensity.
♠ By their nature, surveys are better suited to measuring anxiety about crime rather than fear, strictly defined.


Availability heuristic

The tendency to judge the frequency of events by the ease with which they can be recalled or imagined.


Risk communication

Concerned with the problems, methods, and efficacy of communicating risk to the general public


Most common regret expressed by Americans

A failure to achieve as much education as they would have wished


Zeigarnik effect

the fact that people tend to remember inactions more often than completed actions



Was in fact a prison— a house of punishment rather than a holding institution—and it is generally regarded as the first prison in the world.


Freud on guilt

Freud argued nearly a century ago that guilt is the foundation of civilization, providing resist- ance to the aggressive and destructive tendencies of humankind.


City of joy

a six-month residential program for rape survivors that combines group therapy with literacy classes, leadership training, self-defense courses and lessons in human-rights law. Ninety women attend each semester. The focus is on empowerment, says Ensler. “City of Joy is not a refuge. It is a center for transformation. We are literally saying that the violence which was done to you, through a process of love, healing therapy and education, can be turned into a motor that makes you a leader.”


The U.S.’s Helms Amendment

enacted in 1973, prevents American assistance funds from going to programs that also provide abortions.