Readings 2nd Exam Flashcards Preview

Gender and Women's Studies > Readings 2nd Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Readings 2nd Exam Deck (14)
Loading flashcards...
1

Male And Female Hormones Revisited

by: Mariamne H. Whatley

- male hormones = androgens

- female hormones = estrogens

*both hormones appear in both men and women, but in different amounts - and the amount and proportions of each vary across individuals

- adrenal glands (ovaries and testes) produce the hormones

- both hormones are needed for normal development, and both increase during puberty

-estrogen does not disappear after menopause (an androgens are actually converted to estrogen in fat cells during menopause)

2

Female Adolescence "Puberty and Growing up"

by: Rose Frisch

- a girl's growth spurt always occurs before menarche

- this depends largely on body weight (and peak weight gain takes place before menarche) - but menarche occurs after weight gain starts to slow down

- girls being growth spurt at about 9.5 y/o and boys at 12.8 y/o

- at first, no one believed her that weight was realated to menarche

-the age of menarche is earlier now than a centruy ago

-things that delay menarche: environmental factors, high altitiude, undereating, overexercising, diseases

-a certain amount of body fat is needed for reproduction

-when girls have 1st menarche, their ovarian cycles do not being immediately/consistantly --> but once boys hit genarchy, their sperm production is at the adult level

3

Dont Just Go with the Flow

from: Teen Voices

-some menstrual products are better for you and the environment

- in tampons and pads in stores - they contain dioxin which could be cancerous

- alternatives: cotton pad, cloth pad, menstrual cup (diva cup) - reusable, sponge, organic tampons

- ways to prevent TSS: change tampon every 4-5 hours, wash hands before inserting, alternate between pads and tampons, do not sleep with tampons in

4

The selling of Premenstrual Syndrome "Who profits from marketing PMS?"

by: Andrea Eagan

- estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) - controversial

-PMS varies widely--> appears after ovulation and disappears at the beginning of the menstrual period

-we still don't know what exactly causes PMS

-but doctors still treat it -- and some of it is caused by medical treatment (ex: after going off of the pill)

-could be negative long term effects of progesterone treatments for PMS

5

To Bleed or Not to Bleed

"New options at the birth control arsenal"

by: Kiesha McCurtis

- complete menstrual suppression products are being marketed today- so women never have to have a period

- pretty safe

-same risks as regular birth control - except more risks of break-through bleeding

-women may be concerned because they can't use a missed period as a pregnancy indicator

-pharmaceutical companies promote these products saying they're healthier -- but not true

6

A Gendered Epidemic "Women and the Risks and Burdens of HIV"

by: Peter Piot

-women represent an increasing proportion of of people infected with HIV

- age mixing (espec. in Africa) leads young girls more likely to get HIV than boys (b/c young girls have sex with older men)

-also immature genital tracts make young girls more suseptible to infection

-affects minority, disadvantaged people/women the most

-need more voluntary counseling and testing, more info and help preventing passing HIV from mother to child

7

Cervical Cancer Vaccines in Contect

by: Adriane Fugh-Berman

- an abnornmal Pap does not equal cervical cancer, but a follow-up colposcopy is needed ----- but its not that afforable and some insurance may not cover it

-Pap smears help prevent cervical cancer - but women need access to follow ups

-HPV is very common and cures itself 90% of the time

-Gardasil = vaccine against HPV (don't know to what extent these cover yet, or if boosters are needed)

8

Hold the Hype on HPV

by: Alicia Bell

- Gardasil's manufacturer tried topass a law to require the vaccine for school-aged girls but there was a lot of controversy around this

-for parents, the vaccine reminds them that their kids will have sex

-Gardasil is approved for females 9-26 ---- but it really depends on your level of sexual activity (vaccine works best beofre you've had sex or if you've had very few sex partners)

-the types of HPV that cause genital warts are not the types that cause cervical cancer

-HPV can be transmitted through skin

9

A Dangerous Combination "Direct-to-Consumer Advertising, Abstinence-Only education, and young women's health"

by: ronna  popkin

- explosion in contraceptive advertising (especially birth control pills to women) is due to a larger overall increase in DTC (direct to consumer) prescription drug ads

- often contain vague, misleading, or unbalanced info and messages

-teens get a lot of their info about sexual health and birth control from media (especially teens who were taught abstinence only -- the only way they seek out and get info is through media)

-some birth control was advertised manly as a way to clear up skin -- beauty effects rather than contraceptive effects (and the risks were hidden or hard to read)

- many teens don't know that the Pill doesn't protect against STDs (because its not advertised as strongly)

-Pills just to get fewer periods - misleading that its "safe" or reccommended

-some hormonal ads are targeted at women of color but don't comply with their skin tone (the patch) -- also enforced stereotypes about black women needing birth control more to prevent reproduction while white women use it more for beauty, cramps, etc

-scare tactics used in abstinence only programs are ineffective to preventing sex -- and may lead teens to mistrust other info they hear about risks

10

The Pill may not mix well with other drugs

by: judith willis

- combinations of the pill and other drugs can either diminish the effectiveness of the pill, but also increase or decrease the potentcy of the other drug

-some drugs decrease contraception effects because they increase the metabolism of contraceptives -- so they no longer suppress ovulation

-types of drugs that may decrease effectiveness of the pill: antibiotics, barbiturates, anticonvulsants, anti-inflammatories

-dosages of other drugs may need to be adjusted, (ex: people with diabetes)

**** drugs, in general, usuallu don't interfere with the Pill though*****

11

Acquiescene in the Contrceptive Marketplace

by: claudine isles wallace

-hormones used in the pill are much more potent than those naturally occurring in our bodies

- only 2 significant non-hormonal contraceptives: the cervical cap and the female condom

-cervical cap = diaphragm with spermacide --but many women are allergic

-female condoms = more expensive than male condoms, offer less protection and decrease sexual functioning

12

Next Target: Birth Control

by: barbara miner

- Pro-Life WI, claims birth control is murder and wants to ban all hormonal birth control (EC, the pill, IUD, the patch, and the shot) - but not barrier methods

- argue that hormonal BC might act on a fertilized egg to prevent implantation = "abortifacient"

-BC pills work by preventing ovulation, and EC is just a highly concentrated dose of the pill

- american medical association defines pregnancy as when the fertilized egg implants in the womb (not egg meets sperm)

-people also believe that "contraceptive mentality" promotes promiscuity

13

Eight New Nonhormonal Contraceptive Methods for Men 

by: Elaine lissner

1. no-scalpel vasectomy--gently poking and stretching a small opening in the scrotal skin rather than cutting the skin-- sperm ducts are blocked ---bleeds less and heals faster

2. permanent contraceptio by injection -- injection of chemicals to seal off vas deferens

3. potentially reversible contraception by injectable vas deferens plug -- 98% effective, reversible

4. potentially reversible contraception by surgically implanted vas deferens plug-- plug is implanted in vas deferens (two plugs in one - makes it more leak-free)

5. temporary injectable contraception -- vas deferens coated with sperm-killing solution ---easily reversible

6. wet heat method -- testes are bathed in VERY hot water every night for three weeks (116 F for 45 min/day) -- use in conjunction with sperm count checks

7. artificial cryptorchidism "Jockey Method" -- shorts are worn during the day to hold testes in inguinal canal -- causes heat effect

8. ultrasound method -- ultra-short sound waves are applied to testes for 10 minutes once every 6 months

 

 

- all non-hormonal --- research bias plays a role in why they are more developed (believe men dont care about contraception)

14

Beyond Condoms "Years in the Making, Male Hormonal Contraceptives May Finally Be on Track"

by: Regina Nuzzo

- hormonal contraceptives for men are beng develpoed -- implants, gels, injections

- its much more difficult to suppress sperm production (millions, every day)  than egg production (one, once a month) -- makes it difficult 

-male hormonal methods work by adding testosterone to the blood stream - haults production of sperm cells and also blocks normal production of testoserone (but added male hormones make up for this)

- side effects can be similar to steroid use in short term

-even if a drug is effective, it needs to be convienient too

-many men are willing to use hormonal methods