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Flashcards in Readings Exam 3 Deck (34)
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What is a Theory of Women's Smoking? And How do Societies Benefit?

by: Lorraine Greaves

- smoking may help women control and cope with internal and external realities

-helps women meditate, a break from reality --> this benefits the social order surrounding women

-smoking can be used to absorb inequalities or resist it

-womens smoking is approves of in some cultures - weight loss, fashion, movies ---- and industries benefit

-smoking can erase women's emotion or challenges -- so men want them to smoke (bad)

-smoking is bad for the woman herself, but not for the patriarchal family (but alcohol and hard drugs are)

- society may be willing to give up women's health concerns in order to "benefit" (patriarchal) society


The Picture of Health: How Textbook Photos Construct Health

by: Mariamne Whatley

-textbook photos are often selected by generic publisher's images rather than by the authors

-many people strive for the image of health, not actualy health itself (ex: tanning is bad for you but it makes you look better)

-healthy images in textboks: white, young, nondisabled, slim, outdoor rural athletic activities (for leisre, not at work), suggest middle class (expensive activities), heterosexual interactions, often exposed skin (volleyball, biking)

-tries to create a desirable lifestyle that we think if we achieve, we'll be happy (like advertising)

-should include in "healthy" pictures:  older people, minorities, people with disabilities, and people in urban settings or work environments, heavier people (more healthy than anorexic people)

-should show a range of possible healthy activities



by: Nancy Worcester

- we learn at a young age not to like fat people, so we have anxiety about gaining weight ourselves (or hate ourselves if we are overweight)

-women biologically put on more fat than men, and in different areas

-women are marketed to way more about dieting than men

-a woman's body appearance will affect her social life, acceptance at college, and her employment way more than it would effect a man

-obesity is more common in working class women than middle class -- but the same is not true for men (men there is no/little relationship) -----> maybe women's body image DETERMINES her socio-economic status

-many women think of intolerance and fear of fat as an individual problem rather than a societal problem


Mental Health Issues Related to Dieting

by: Nancy Worcester

1. Women feel guilty is they are not slimming --- dislike their fat and fat becomes a symbol of an unfulfilled goal-----> wont learn to like their bodies the way they are

2. Dieting makes a person more aware of food --- a dieter cannot respond to internal cues for hunger because dieting already creates a constant state of hunger (makes people unable to listen to their own body signals)

- women also struggle more with dieting because their domestic responsibilities are directly related to food

-dieting itself can cause anxiety, depression and apathy

3. Dieting often fails (90-98% in the long term) ---> people need to be encouraged to diet but then they also need practical and emotional support through the process

-media shows dieting as something everyone should be able to do  -- so then people feel like they fail at an easy task

4. Dieting may be "successful"  --> women may not like how they are treated once they are slim --> also cigargettes slim people down, so its harder for women to quit them

5. Suicide is less common in the obese (advantage)


Extreme Makeover: Feminist Edition (How the pitch for cosmetic surgery co-opts feminism)

by: Jennifer Cognard-Black

-huge increase in cosmetic surgeries in the US

-marketing alongside other beauty treatments

-the "choice" of having surgey or not -- self-determination -- women want each other to be informed consumers about surgery 

-but what about the choice to not consider cosmetic surgeries at all

-90% of cosmetic surgey customers are women

-"looks are the new feminism" - really?


The Pressures of Perfectionism

by: Katherine Beagle

- a feminist still wants breast implants

- was planning to finance the procedure with a loan, but then found out many implants require multiple procedures

-many women said silicone breast implants reuined their lives, others say they love them

-FDA says silicone implants "reasonably safe" -- but when they break (they all do) they can get lodged in the body

-when saline implants break, the saline just gets absorbed by the body (which is safe unless they are nonsterile or have been contaminated)  


Making 'A way outta No way

by: Becky Thompson

- people with eating disorders are often thought of as white, middle-class young girls who are self-absorbed and implicated in their own troubles

-this ignores women of color, working-class and lesbians

-eating disorders are often a response to abuse, racism, sexism, homophobia, classism, poverty, stress  and other injustices --- eating disorders were a controlled and sane response to insane circumstances

-prison policy gives rise to the development of eating problems

- many eating disorders are lifelong issues

-feminists think the patriarchal society contributes to many eating problems for women

-black women aren't always judged based on thier shape (while white women are) bc they're more curvey -- leads to idea that eating disorders don't affect blacks-- and leads to misdiagnosis of eating disorders in women of color and made some blacks afraid to seek help

-some women are not body concious and dont see themselves as having bodies at all -- "leaving her body"

-food = the drug of choice for many women

-healing strategies -- self-help, community, religious groups, and other resources


The Cultural Warping of Childbirth

by: Doris Haire

- The US leads all developed countries in teh rate of infant deaths due to birth injury and respiratory distress

-midwives are important to improving our obstetrical care

-our differences (to other countries ) lie in: our frequent use of prenatal and obstetrical medication; our pathologically oriented management of pregnancy, labor, birth and postpartem; and the predominance of artificial feeding

-The following practices (of the US) do not contribute to the reduction of infant mortality:

1. Withholding information on the disadvantages of obstetrical medication

2. Requiring all women to give birth in the hospital

3. Elective induction of labor (when there is no clear medical indication) - labor does not need to be induced until pregnancy has been gestating for 41 weeks

4. Separating the mother from familial support during labor and birth -- in other countries, mothers are encouraged to walk around and talk to family

5. Confining a normal laboring woman to a bed -- women in other countries are encouraged to walk around as they like until the membranes have ruptured

6. Shaving the birth area -- shaving does not reduce the incidence of infection (it may actually increase it)

7. Professional dependence on technology and pharmacological methods of pain relief -- many other countries rely on emotional support from others and the midwife rather than drugs

8. Routine electronic fetal monitoring - could have negative effects

9. Chemical stimulation of labor--drugs used to speed up contractions, which could have negative effects

10. Delaying birth until the physician arrives

11. Requiring mother to assume the lthotomy position for birth (back flat with knees drawn up) -- makes it harder to push -- should be in semi-sitting position

12. Routine use of regional or general anesthesia for a delivery

13. Routine use of forceps for delivery -- use of forceps is very high in US, and oly 5% in most other countries

14. Routine Episiotemy -- intact perineum is better

15. Early Clamping or "Milking" of the umbilical cord

16. Delaying the fist breatfeeding

17. Offering water and formula to the breast-fed newborn infant -- may be harmful

18. Restricting newborn infants to a four-hour feeing schedule and withholding nighttimes feedings 

19. Preventing early father-child contact -- father less likely to give child infections than the hospital itself

20. Restricting intermittant rooming-in to specific room requirements

21. Restricting sibling visitation -- visits can be good for the mother and children -- just explain to them about not bringing in illnesses




Routine Midwifery Care: Why not here?

by: Leah Hyder

-Midwifery in the US faces more barriers than other countries

-In Europe, 80% of births involve a midwife

- Midwifery is also prevalent in devloping countries

-Barriers to midwife care in US:

1. Physician opposition (some people think babies are safer with a doctor, but many are safer with midwives)

2. Regulatory barriers - laws vary from state to state

3. Economic woes - paid much less than physicians

4. Access to liability insurance -- don't have malpractice insurance, don't practice

5.Dearth of education programs --few training programs that fill up quickly

6. Barriers to US subpopulations - minorities used midwives more

- Various groups are working toward change in the US for midwives


Overview of Maternity Care in the US

by: Carolyn Keefe

-The US has the highest per-capita spending on healthcare in the world

- the routine use of unneccesary medical interventions puts mothers and babies at risk and are also expensive -- they are mostly used for the legal protection of doctors

-we still have a high infant mortality rate (and its higher for minorities) and maternal mortality rate

-high cesarean birth rate, induction rate, and postpatem depression rate

-obstetric surgical procedures are among the most common surgical procedures performed in the US -- and they are primarily performed on healthy women--often not medically neccessary

-midwives are the safest birth option


Ideals vs. realities in US Births

by: Citizens for Midwifery

-WHO and Mother-friendly childbirth initiative reccommend certain things for childbirth


- midwives----US = only 7%

-out of hospital/ where mother prefers births ---US= 99% in hospitals

-no electronic fetal monitoring---US= about 85%

-10% or less induction of labor----US=21%

- little or no episiotemies-----US=23%

-10-15% cesarian rates----US=29%



How do Socioeconomic Factors Affect Disparities in Maternal Mortality?

by: Deborah Maine

-maternal mortality is most strongly influenced by women's access to medical care for complications of pregnancy

-maternal deaths are still very common in the developing world --> not due to poor conditions, but to complications that don't recieve proper treatment

-and black women in US have higher rates than white women -- maybe due to poorer quality of care for minorities

-MM mainly impacted by the technology used to treat obstetric complications (antibiotics, blood banks, safer surgical techniques)

-Main differences between developing countries and developed are: deaths from unsafe abortions, obstructed labor (when cesarean sections arent avilable), and embolism

-poor countries need to change laws and regulations and training their doctors more effectively


Who Has Abortions?

by: Abortion Access Project

- 50% of women have experienced unintended pregnancies

-35% will have an abortion by age 45

-over 60% of abortions are by women with one or more children

-teens obtain 19% of aboritons

-abortions: 41% are white, 32% black, 20% hispanic, 6% asian, 1% native american

-represent every religious affiliation


Shortage of Abortion Providers

by: Abortion Access Project

-34% of women live in countries which lack facilities that provide even one abortion a year

-25% of patients travel 50-100 miles to obtain abortion services

-almost every state that allows health care professionals to refuse to provide abortion, contraception or sterilization (for moral or religious beliefs)

-74% of family practice cheif residents recieve no training in first-trimester abortion

-44 states have "physician only" clauses in their abortion laws


The Side Effects, Risks, and Complications of Medical Abortion

by: Caroline de Costa

-medical abortion = involves the expulsion from the uterus of the products of contraception (the embryo or fetus, the placenta and the membranes) -- the same process as natural miscarraige

-involves bleeding and some lower abdominal pain (due to contractions from misoprostol) -- similar to menstrual cramps

-bleeding can be similar to a heavy period 

-sometimes women need surgeries

-misoprostol may cause diorheea, nausea and vomiting-and sometimes dizziness, headache or fever

-in about 1% of women it doesn't work -- if pregnancy continues to term, there could be fetal abnormalities

-doctors must make sure the pregnancy is not eptopic

-be careful providing medical abortions to women with a history of heart disease especially heavy smokers

-infections can sometimes occur

-most side effects are due to misoprostol -- but methotrexate has a risk of causing birth abnormalities is abortion doesn't wrk and pregnancy carries to term


Continuum of Family Violence

by: Alaska Department of Public Safety

physical violence --> leads to death

verbal/emotional violence --> leads to suicide

sexual violence --> leads to rape


Power and Control Wheel

by: Domestic Abuse Intervention Project

-using coercion and threats

-using intimidation

-using emotional abuse

-using isolation

-minimizing, denying and blaming

-using children

-using male priviledge

-using economic abuse


Equality Wheel

by: Domestic Abuse Intervention Project

- non-threatening behavior

- respect

- trust and support

- honesty and accountability

- responsible parenting

- shared responsibility

- economic partnership

- negotiation and fairness


Breaking the Silence

by: Megan Steffer

- 15-20 percent of women are raped during their time as an undergraduate student

- 57% of college women have been victims of some kind of sexual assault during their college careers

-80% of rapes occur between people who know each other, and take place in "safe" environments

-Date rape drugs (GHB, Rophynol, Ketamine) are becoming more common (colorless, odorless ---- often make the consumer appear drunk and lose her memory

-talking about an experience helps a victim cope


The Unique Role Health Workers Can Play in Recognizing and Responding to Battered Women

by: Nancy Worcester

-Battering is the single most common cause of injury to women

-includes mental and physical health issues 

-headaches, backaches, sleep disorders, anxiety, eating disorders, depression, etc are common in batttered women

-22-35% of women in emergency rooms are battered women

-battery during pregnancy is more common (and has worse consequences) --- and pregnant teens who are abused often don't tell anyone

-health workers should not isolate the woman and not imply that she is the problem

-abuse is cyclical: tension builds -> physical abuse--> woman feels released from the tension-> man apologizes and they enter "honeymoon stage" --> woman gets hooked

-battering relationships tend to escalate over time

-health care workers should keep good medical records, need to properly identify battered women, should ask about violence, give women info about community resources, and empower women to leave at their own pace


Trans and Intersex Survivors of Domestic Violence "Defining Terms, Barriers and Responsibilities"

by: Diana Courvant and Loree Cook-Daniels

- In the 80s and 90s, lesbian and gay battering came to light --- but many frameworks exclude intersexuals

-gender assignment = boy or girl (given by medical professionals)

-gender identity = our personal view of our own gender

-gender attribution = what someone else assumes about my gender

-gender expression = what you do that expresses gender

-gender role = society's expecations of how a certain gender should act

-transsexual vs. transvestities vs. cross-dressers vs. transgender (umbrella0

-50% of trans and intersex people have been sexually assualted or raped -- but don't seek help as much

- many intersexuals fear health institutions based on previous experience 

-they also fear that their trans status will be exposed (and expose them to more violence)

-some people think of trans people as mentally ill -- leads to their shame

-trans people may also fear that their children will be taken if they lose a custody battle

-gender-segregated services also are a barrier to trans people

-MtF trans people often cannot/will not go to women's shelters or fear their stories will not be believed

-FtM people cannot go to womens shelters and fear exposure and not being believed

- we must: make sure every community has proper places for victims to go to, not revictimize intersexuals, follow up on our efforts


Women and Mental Health

by: Marian Murphy

-mental health refers to not just the absence of symptoms but to the prescense of well-being and growth and ability to solve problems in a reality-based way

- we each fulfill less than 10% of our potential for true growth

-there are differing standards of mental health for women and men according to health care professionals

- people suggest that one of the most important factors involved in mental health is adjustment to one's environment -- thus women would have to adjust to accept behavioral norms for our sex

-mental health professionals should be concerned about their use of sex-role stereotypes

-majority of mental health clients are women-- maybe hormones, biological differences, lower social status, women are not "allowed" to be assertive like men are (they learn to be helpless), main cause - the traditional female role

-perhaps each sex expresses depression differently

-working class women are more likely to be depressed

-women's problems may be over-medicalized -- do not address the root causes

-new therapy should increase equality between client and therapist and address more root factors 

-health needs to eoncompass Love, Work and Play 


Mad Women or Mad Society: Towards a Feminist Practice  with Women Survivors of Child Sexual Assault

by: Fiona Rummery

-In most cases of child sexual assault, the perpetrator is known to the child and the abuse continues over some time--usually involves progressive intrusion

-child usually doesn't say anything until some time after the abuse ends

-incest survivors needs appropriate supportive services in order to confront the legacy of their abuse

-many survivors have a high psychiatric history or diagnosis -- but some "symtoms" are not really "sick" symptoms

-recovery involves empowerment of the survivor and creation of new healthy realtionships -- mourning what happened and moving forward

-another problem: women live in a paradox of being glorified and trapped in their gender role stereotype --- rebelling OR conforming can be labled as dysfunctional

-need a non-heirarchical structure for client-doctor relationships


Frequency, Causes and Risk Factors for Depression

by: Report of the Task Force on Women and Depression in Wisconsin

-depression is very common but underdiagnosed -- there are twice as many women who are diagnosed as depressed than men

-one of the key contributing factors to depression is poverty

-the gender difference in depression is not present in childhood, but emerges around 15 years of age (more ris factors for adolescent girls)

-women are especially at risk for depression during postpartum period -- can be bad for the woman and the child and other family members

-both biological factors (genetics, hormones) and stressors contribute to depression-- rape and battery are two stressors that disproportionately affect women

-chronic stressors (poverty, discrimination) also contribute to depression


Depression in Wisconsin Women

from: Report of the Task Force on Women and Depression in Wisconsin

- used two measures to assess mental health: poor mental health days and mortality from suicide

-men are more likely to complete suicide attempts, but women are more likely to try them

- Native Americans have the highest rates of suicide over all ethnic groups

-factors that increase women's depression in WI: low income/poverty, gender wage gap, living in rural areas (more isolation), seasonal depression factors, binge drinking, reproductive rights (low), poverty in Mliwaukee


Breast Cancer: Power vs. Prosthesis

by: Audre Lourde

-physcians sometimes emphazie recovery from breast cancer as a cosmetic problem -- which also reinforces stereotypes for women

-but women should be more concerned with their actualy health

-women who lost a breast to breast cancer are warriors just like men who lost an eye in battle

-women with masectomies should become more visible to others 

-usually prosthesis serve a real function (ex: leg to walk), but breasts are just to look at

-women may struggle with fashion needs with only one breast

-employment discrimination is common to all women who had breast cancer


Breast Implants for Reconstruction: A Closer Look

by: Stephanie Donne

- about 75% of patients have one or both breasts reconstructed (about 50% rebuild them using own body tissue)

-women who get silicone or surgical gel implants can face post-surgical complications which may require additional surgeries

-silicone gel implants produce increased risk for other cancers, autoimmune disease, and fibromialgia

-all implants interfere with mammograms

-some implants break early, and none last forever -- all women with implants will require surgery to remove or replace them

-saline implants rupture in the body and the body absorbs the saline -- this is harmless -- but if there is bacteria present, that could be harmful

-silicone gel ruptures can cause the gel to remain in the scar tissue and travel throughout the body


Breast Cancer: The Environmental Connection

by: Rita Arditti and Tatiana Schreiber

-treatments for cancer: surgery, radiation, and chemo

-1/3 people will get some form of cancer and 1/4 will die from it

-it is seen as an individual problem, but many social and environmental iddues influence it

-80% of cancers are in some way related to environmental factors (air, water, soil, diets, medical procedures, and living and working conditions)

-pestacides used to grow food are hazardous

-phsicians should ask questions about work environments

-radiation in mammorgrams may be harmful, weapon radiation, chemical radiation from factories, lower immune systems

-cancer prevention would require changing the industry (controlled by the rich)--- we often combat cancers and other problems with more drugs, not prevention

-Breast cancer is on the rise among black women -- they live in more impacted, industrialized areas


Screening for Mammorgrams: When Fighting for Coverage and Quality Isn't Enough

by: Cynthia Pearson

- Mammograms started in 1960s

-used to identify breast cancer earlier - when its really small

-soon Medicare and other health insurances began to cover mammograms

-some mamms. were great and the radiologists were very good -- but some were bad

- a bad mamm. is worse than no mamm.

-mamms. were not an advantage to all women -- only menopause women (50+ ish)


Manufacturing Need, Manufacturing "Knowledge" 

by: the National Women's Health Network

-some medical journals have created a policy that refuses to publish research sponsored by pharm. companies without scientific independance

-but pharm companies still influence almost all info. available to doctors

-companies can seek out or even create non profit groups and offer them money to do educational campaigns that will help their products -- sometimes accurate, sometimes not at all

-drug companies also use the news to advertise

-news reporters also may not do research and report drug companies news as the company presents it

-web sites are also subject to influence

-also huge campaigns when a new drug comes out --> ex: create concern for a problem, create an easy and afforable way to detect the problem, then must ude their drug to fix the problem