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Flashcards in really dont know this shit Deck (22):
1

whats the uterus look like in an ectopic pregnancy

same as late luteal (secretory) phase- waiting for implantation so DECIMALIZED ENDOMETRIUM ONLY
-DIALTED, COILED ENDOMETIAL GLANDS and VASCUALRIZED EDEMATOUS STROMA

2

what is caudal regression syndrome

SACRAL AGENESIS causing LOWER EXTREMITY PARALYSIS and URINARY INCONTINENCE

patients born with agenensis of the sacrum and occasionally lumbar spine and experience resultant FLACCID PARALYSIS of the LEGS, DORSIFLEXED CONTRACTURES of the FEET, and URINARY INCONTINENCE

can range from isolated anal atresia to sirenomelia

related to POORLY CONTROLLED MATERNAL DIABETES

3

what do activated macrophages and nuetorphils secrete in emphysema

PRTOEASES- CATHESPINS, MMPs, ELASTASES
-they degrade ecm and generate free oxygen radicals the impair the function of protease inhibitors (like alpha-1-antitrypsin)

4

why do club cells do

formerly Clara cell
nonciliated, secretory epithelium of the terminal respiratory epithelium

secrete club cell secretory protein and surfactant components

help detoxify inhaled substances (tobacco smoke) by CPY450 mechanism

5

what is seen in fetal-placnetal aromatase deficiency

AR disorder that manifests early in embryonal life with HIGH ANDROGEN and LOW ESTROGEN levels in the female fetus

MATERNAL VIRILIATION (hirsutism) commonly occurs during pregnancy due to the transfer of excess androgen into the maternal circulation

affected news worth girls have NORMAL INTERNAL GENITALIA and AMBIGUOUS or MALE-TYPE EXTERNAL genitalia

at puberty, impaired ovarian estrogen synthesis causes primary amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and tall statue (low estrogen delays fusion of epiphyses)

men: tall statue and osteoporosis but no genital stuff

6

what causes WIDE SPLIT S2

LENGTHENING of RIGHT VENTRICULAR EJECTION TIME w/ delayed closure of pulmonary valve (accentuated by INHALATION)

seen in: right bundle branch block, pulmonary stenosis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension

7

neoplasms associated with LYNCH syndrome (HNPCC)

colorectal
breast
ovarian

8

neoplasms associated with LIFRAUMENI syndrome

sarcomas
breast cancer
brain tumors
adrenocortical carcinomas
leukemia

9

neoplasms in VHL

hemangioblastomas
clear cell renal carcinoma
pheochromocytoma

10

whats going on in ataxia-telangiectasia

tumor suppressor protein p53 inactivation resulting in disruption of NONHOMOLGOUS END JOINING REPAIR MECHANISM

ATM genene mutation

AR

11

inheritance patterns of marfan and homocytinuria

marfan: AD
homo: AR

Homocystinguria:retarded (marfan not), megaloblastic anemia, THROMBOSIS, fair complexion

12

what is seen in pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

lactic acidosis
neurologic
early death

13

EKG changes in hyperkalemia

peaked t wave
loss of p wave
prolonged PR
widened QRS
slow HR

14

EKG changed in hypokalmeia

QT prolongation
u wave
ST depression

15

EKG changes in hypercalcemia

QT shortening, t wave flattening or inversion

hypo: QT prolongation

16

what kind of diarrhea is rotavirus

osmotic

17

what is KLUVER-BUCY syndroem

rare neuropsychiatric syndrome

medial temporal lobe (AMYGDLAL) fucked up

inappropriate behavior, sexual stuff, oral fixation, hyperphagia, visual agnosia, loss of normal anger and fear reaction, placidity, amnesia, distractibility, seizures, dementia

ASSOCIATED WITH HSV-1

18

what is "contact inhibition"

when cells (normal ones) are grown on culture they will grow until they touch all boarders and then they stop-medatiaed by CADHERINS and CATENINS

19

what is XEROSIS (asteatosis dermatitis, "winter itch")

common in older patients during winter
indoor heaters lower relative air humidity

defects in stratum CORNEUM permeability layer

20

what is a merkel cell carcinoma

neuroendocrine receptor that sense of touch

blueish-red nodules or flesh-colored on face, neck or head

21

what is the first step of de novo pyrimidine synthesis and where does it occur

cabamoyl phosphate synthetase II (converts CO2, glutamine, and 2 ATP into carbamoyl phosphate)


occurs in CYTOPLASMq

22

what are the signs of a pontine hemorrhage

PINPOINT PUPILS
loss of horizontal gaze
quadriparesis
decerebrate posturing
rapidly evolving coma that culminates in death within several hours