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Flashcards in Red Seal 2 Deck (21)
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1

Potage is a french word for:

Vegetable soup

2

What are three methods of reduction used to thicken sauces:

High fat liquid - cream based
High protein - demi glace
Sugar - gastrique

3

What are the basic ingredients in a Cumberland sauce:

Orange and lemon rind
Red currant jelly
Ruby port
Orange juice
Lemon juice
Mustard
Ginger

4

Briefly describe and give an application for flour based thickeners in sauces:

Gelatinizes without clumping when mixed with fat or oil and then heated
Example - roux, beurre manie

5

Briefly describe and give an application for pre gelatinized flour based thickeners in sauces:

"Instant flour" - low protein, finely ground wheat flour that has been pre cooked and then dried. Resists clumping
Example - gravy

6

List some plant based thickeners along with some applications:

Corn starch - pudding, stir fry sauce
Rice starch - congee
Arrow root, potato, tapioca

7

Briefly describe and give examples of five types of suspended particles used to thicken sauces:

Suspended particles thicken sauces when dispersed throughout
Bread crumbs - rouille, panade
Nut solids - tahini, pesto, romesco
Purees - tomato sauce, apple sauce
Spices - moles, curries
Protein (without heat) - bagna cauda (anchovies)

8

Explain how sauces are thickened using egg yolks and give a couple applications:

Sauces thicken when egg yolks coagulate and form a gel
Examples - custards, creme anglaise, blanquettes,

9

Blanquette de veau may be thickened or enriched using a:

Liason

10

Avgolemono is a:

Egg - lemon sauce: a family of sauces or soups made with egg yolk and lemon juice mixed with broth and heated until thickened

11

Proteins when heated can be used to thicken sauces, give five examples:

Egg yolks
Whole eggs
Gelatin
Milk - condensed and evaporated milk form a gel when heated
Blood

12

Besides eggs, what are other examples of coagulants used to thicken sauces:

Soy protein
Cultured dairy

13

Describe how cultured dairy is thickened:

Cultures thicken by bacterial fermentation; rennet and
other enzymes coagulate proteins in milk; acids cause
milk to curdle

14

List eight traditional methods used to thicken sauces:

Reduction
Protein (with heat)
Emulsions
Pectin
Particles
Starch
Coagulant
Foam

15

Centipoise is what:

The unit used to measure the viscosity of a liquid

16

What is the centipoise at 68 F (room temperature) of water, cream, molasses, ketchup:

Water - 1
Cream - 20-40
Molasses - 5000-10000
Ketchup - 50000-70000

17

Pommes aligot would be described as:

Cheesy whipped mashed potatoes

18

What is nouvelle cuisine:

A modern style of cooking that avoids rich, heavy foods and emphasizes the freshness of the ingredients and the presentation of the dishes

19

What is a colloid:

A mixture in which one substance (dispersed phase) is evenly mixed throughout another substance (continuous phase)

20

Give some examples of hydrocolloids:

Colloids in which the continuous phase is water and the presence of particles alters the characteristics of the water
Milk, Muddy water, Gelatin

21

Explain how gelatin is hydrocolloid:

Gelatin is made by mixing strands of proteins throughout water
Because these strands bind to each other even a small amount of gelatin is enough to turn water from a liquid to a soft solid called a gel