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Flashcards in Regulation of Gene Expression Deck (16):

double minutes

forms during gene amplification as regions of a chromosome undergo repeated cycles of DNA replication

small unstable chromosomes that lead to amplification of genes involved


transcription regulation by steroid receptors

hormone response elements bind the hormone receptor to affect transcription


constitutively activated

describes genes that are regulated solely by DNA consensus elements in the promoter region


extracellular signal transcription activation

protein recetprs such as G-proteins


activation of a cytoplasmic transcription factor

transcription factor kept out of the nucleus when inactivated


TATA-binding protein0associated factors (TAFs)

tissue specific and gene family specific activators or repressors of transcription

do not bind DNA, often histone acetylases or deacetylases


four types of alternative splicing

exon skipping, mutually exclusive exons, alternative 5' donor or 3' acceptor sites, intron retention


cryptic splice sites

can arise from mutations, creating frameshift mutations, premature truncations, insertions, or deletions


alternate polyadenylation sites selection

having an earlier polyA site or changing the length of the 3'UTR can truncate genes or change the regulation of genes


regulation through RNA export

transport factors help export mRNA, these factors are limiting and are recycled once the RNA has been exported

transcription stops if these packaging proteins run low


long non-coding RNAs

look like mRNA but do not have open reading frames due to high frequency of stop codons

may bind to mRNA to regulate processing or stability, some lncRNAs regulate chromatin structure


internal ribosome entry site

sequences form secondary structure in the mRNA that allows translation to initiate internally in an mRNA in a cap-independent mechanism

involves eIf4G/4A complex


regulation of globin mRNA translation by heme

in RBCs, high heme activates globin translation and low heme represses globin translation


iron-response element binding protein (IRE-BP)

binds to the iron response element (IRE), which is a hairpin loop on both transferrin and ferritin proteins

when iron is high IRE-BP is inactivated and ferritin is translated

when iron is low IRE-BP is activated and transferrin is translated


exosome complex

the nuclease complex that degrades mRNA and non-coding RNAs


regulation of histon mRNA stability by DNA replication

replication increases stability of the histone