Cancer Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cancer Pathology Deck (34):
1

-plasia

change or transformation

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hyperplasia

increase in cell number, orderly and physiologic proliferation of cells

ex. wound healing, breast tissue during pregnancy, squamous epithelium when irritated

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metaplasia

physiologic transformation of one type of differentiated tissue into another type of tissue

can be a response to stress or insult

orderly physiologic process that may regress if stress is discontinued

ex. cervix during menarche, esophagus as a result of reflux

4

dysplasia

disordered growth, usually associated with epithelium

characterize by changes that include loss in maturation and accumulation of mutations

proliferation is dysregulated and can evolve into a malignant neoplasm

the more advanced it is, the less likely it will regress

5

neoplasia

a clonal proliferation of cells exhibiting uncontrolled growth

some are benign and some are malignant

some are preceded by dysplasia, while others are de novo

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adeno-

glandular

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lipo-

fatty

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osteo-

bone

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chondro-

cartilage

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-oma

generally benign

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-sarcoma

malignant mesenchymal tumor

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-carcinoma

malignant epithelial tumor

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lymphoma

malignant lymphoid tumor

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melanoma

malignant melanocytic tumor

15

adenomas of the GI tract

not benign, dysplastic lesions that can evolve into invasive malignant neoplasms (Carcinomas)

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leio-

smooth muscle tumor

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rhabdo-

skeletal muscle tumor

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four general characteristics of benign tumors

well differentiated, slow rate of growth, does not invade adjacent tissues, no metastasis

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four general characteristics of malignant tumors

well or poorly differentiated, fast rate of growth, often invades adjacent tissue, can metastasize

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tumor cell differentiation

well differentiated tumors closely resemble their tissue of origin, porrly differentiated tumros do not

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pleomorphism

variation in size and shape

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anaplasia

when tumor cells lose their resemblance to tissue of origin

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three factors that determine tumor growth rate

what proportion of cells are dividing

how fast the cells are dividing

the ratio of cell division to cell death

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four stages of local invasion

changes of tumor cell-cell interactions

degradation of the extracellular matrix

changes in attachment of tumor cells to ECM proteins

locomotion, migration is the final step of invasion

25

metastasis

the defining quality of malignant neoplasms

defined as the spread/transfer of cancer cells from one organ or part to another site not directly connected with it

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steps of metastasis

metastatic sublone of cells in the primary tumor invades the basement membrane, detachment/attachment to basement membrane and ECM, destruction of basement membranes

migration through ECM due to various intrinsic factors of tumor cells: motility, loss of cell-cell adhesion, collagenolytic and proteolytic enzymes

penetration/invasion of the vessel wall, intravasation

survival and transport via lymphatics or blood vessels

arrest in target organs

extravasation in secondary sites

survival and growth at metastatic site

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routes of metastatic spread

lymphatic - goes where the lymph node drains

hematogenous - through small veins, moves to other sites/organs, veins have thinner walls and lowe rpressure

seeding of body cavities - typical tumors in peritoneum

28

staging using TNM

T - size and tissues involved by main tumor mass (T1-T4)

N - how many and what kind of lymph nodes (N0-N3)

M - metastatic spread (M0-M1)

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systemic effects of cancer in the host

cachexia, paraneoplastic syndromes, infection, bleeding/thrombosis

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direct tumor effect

destruction/invasion of adjacent structures

ex. bowel obstruction in abdominal tumor, seizure in brain tumor

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cachexia

wasting, lethargy, loss of appetite

etiology complex, linked to cytokines and host response to tumor

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paraneoplastic syndromes

remote effects not due to local effects of primary tumor or its metastases

ectopic hormone producetion - hypercalcemia (increased calcium in blood)

autoimmune - antibodies against host

33

hematologic effects

infection/immunosuppression caused by chemotherapy, malnutrition, cytokine milieu

thrombosis/bleeding caused by the inflammatory milieu (activates endothelium, platelets) and secreted factors (tissue factor, cancer procoagulant)

anemia caused by the inflammatory milieu and chemotherapy

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four most prevalent cancers that kill

lung cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer in men, and breast cancer in women