Regulation of Gene Expression Flashcards Preview

Physiology Exam 3 > Regulation of Gene Expression > Flashcards

Flashcards in Regulation of Gene Expression Deck (16):
1

Examples of "housekeeping genes" (common to all cells of animal)

1. Structural proteins of chromosomes
2. RNA polymerases
3. DNA repair enzymes
4. Glycolytic and other basic metabolic enzymes
5. Cytoskeleton proteins

2

Examples of cell type specific proteins

1. Hemoglobin (RBCs)
2. Immunoglobulin (B lymphocytes)

3

? of ? genes are expressed in 1 given cell

10,000-20,000 out of 30,000

4

5 methods of regulating gene expression

And where do they occur?

Nucleus:
1. Transcriptional control
2. RNA processing control

Cytoplasm:
3. RNA transport control
4. Translational control
5. Protein activity control

5

Regulatory proteins which control transcription

1. Repressors
2. Acivators
3. RNA polymerases

6

3 methods of protein activity control

1. Glycolysation
2. Zymogens to enzymes
3. Phosphorylation

7

Western blots protein analysis

If target protein is there

Estimates / semi-quantifies

8

Confocal protein analysis

Where is the protein?

9

ELISA protein analysis

Enzyme-Linke ImmunoSorbent Assay

Quantitative → used in clinics

10

How does a single regulatory protein coordinate the expression of many different genes?

Involves combinations of regulatory proteins (last number in combination lock)

11

What changes fibroblast to muscle cell?

MyoD gene transfection

12

Positive feedback loop for protein production

1. Protein A is not made because its required for its own transcription
2. Transient signal turns on protein A expression
3. Protein A produced → encourages more transcription

13

2 inhibitors of transcription

1. Antibiotics
2. Anticancer drugs

14

How is transcription in the nucleus controlled?

Regulatory proteins

15

1 example of how RNA processing in the nucleus can be controlled

mRNA splicing

16

RNA transport

Nucleus → ribosomes in cytoplasm