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why is regulation of respiration important?

1. maintaing oxygen levels
2. eliminating carbon dioxide
3. pH regulation (by means of CO2)


what happens to pH when there is carbon dioxide build-up?

respiratory acidosis


what happens to pH when there is excessive clearance of CO2?

respiratory alkalosis


what are the three respiratory control centres?

1. neurons in the brain stem
2. medullary rhythmic centre
3. pons respiratory centres


neurons in the brain stem are responsible for what respiratory activities?

1. generate rhythm
2. stimulate respiratory muscles
3. integrate feedback signals


what important centres are found in the medullary rhythmic centre?

1. pre-botzinger complex
2. dorsal respiratory group
3. ventral respiratory group


What respiratory centres are found in the pons?

1. apneustic area
2. pneumotaxic area


the DRG (dorsal respiratory group) controls efferent activity of what 2 nerves?

1. phrenic nerve --> diaphragm
2. external intercostal nerves --> ribcage expansion


what group drives active expiration ?

ventral respiratory group (VRG)


the ventral respiratory group controls efferent activity of what two actions?

1. ribcage compression - internal intercostal nerves
2. push diaphragm up - abdominal muscles


what does the RTN (retrotrapezoid nucleus) chemoreceptor respond to?

sensitive to CO2 but not sensitive to O2. Responds to Co2 related pH changes (Detects H ions)


What is responsible for peripheral chemoreception?

carotid body and aortic body


What does the carotid body respond to?

low partial pressure of oxygen not oxygen content. Also provides rapid response to partial pressure of carbon dioxide and pH (CO2 independent)


what is the principle role of the aortic body?

baroreception for blood pressure