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Year 3 Radiography > Regulations and legal responsibilities > Flashcards

Flashcards in Regulations and legal responsibilities Deck (33):
1

examples of effects of ionising radiation (4)

genetic effects (can affect later generations)
cataracts
radiation burns
tumours (esp thyroid)

2

2 biggest sources of radiation

radon
CT

3

Why are dental radiographs worrying

low dose but high volume
millions of dental radiographs every year, many of these not helpful for diagnosis

4

what is the background radiatio dose in UK

2.5 mSv

5

name of most recent radiation regulation

IRMER2000 (Ionising Radiation (medical exposure) Regulations

6

name of legislation to keep
a) general public and staff safe
b) keep patient dose as low as poss

a) IRR99
b) IRMER2000

7

5 elements of a risk assessment

1. identify hazards (dose)
2. decide who might be harmed and how they might be affected
3. likelihood of risk
4. record
5. periodic review

8

what does RPA stand for and what do they do 6

Radiation Protection Adviser
every dental practice must have one
-sets requirements for controlled areas/local rules
-prior examination of plans for new equipment, rooms
-periodic safety testing
-calibration of dose measuring equip
-RA/contingency plan
-investigation after radiation incident

9

what does RPS stand for, what do they do

Radiation Protection Supervisor (usually dentist)
every dental practice must have one.
RPS ensures local rules are followed (how to work safely in controlled area) must be trained and have authority

10

what is contained in local rules WARC

-how to work safely in controlled area
-RPA and RPS name and contact no.
-identification of controlled area
-summary of working instructions
-contingency for accidents/ emergencies

11

radiation limits in controlled area

annual dose >6mSv or 3/10 of dose limit

12

who should be allowed in controlled area

pt ONLY

13

who does dose limits apply to

staff, trainees, anyone OTHER THAN PATIENT

14

what is a 'classified person'

someone exposed to more than 6mSv/ year or more than 3/10 of dose limit
eg nuclear power statio worker (never dentists)

15

what is a dose constraint

not limits but recommended levels that should not be exceeded in normal practice
– 1mSv Operators directly involved with
radiography
– 0.3mSv For employees not directly involved &
“comforters and carers”

16

4 Classes of duty holder, defined in IRMER 2000

-referrer: requests radiograph, must include history and examination (justification for radiographs)
-practitioner: justification of radiographs using selection criteria
-operator: carries out investigation
-employer

17

what does ALARP stand for

As Low As Reasonably Practicable

18

activites undertaken by operator

-identify pt
-position film, x-ray tube, pt
-set exposure parameters
-process films
-evaluate quality of films

19

What is optimisation?

keeping dose ALARP-eg justification, field reduction, using modern equipment

20

duties of employer

-have written protocols
-establish diagnostic reference levels
-RA
-ensure staff are trained
-notificatio of HSE

21

duties of employee

-not expose yourself or anyone to ionising radiation greater than necessary
-use PPE as necessary
-report equipment defects
-keep up with training

22

who is the medical physics expert often the same person as?

RPA

23

what do medical physics experts give advice on?

-patient dosage
-development/ use of new or complex techniques
-other matters of patient dose/ exposure

24

should we ask if pt are pregnant before taking x-rays in dentistry

no-not relevant bc of field of x-ray

25

difference between dose limit and diagnostic reference levels

dose limit: max radiation dose for staff/ public
diagnostic reference levels: dose for typical examinations for patient from specific equipment/ technique

26

how were DRLs decided?

1/3rd quartile of national

27

why is ionising radiation dangerous

generation of free radicals and direct interaction with DNA

28

DRL in 1999 and 2007 in
a. mandibular molar intra-oral
b. standard adult panoramic

a. mandibular molar intra-oral: 4 --> 2.4 mGy
b. standard adult panoramic: 65 --> 60mGy

29

who to report excessive exposure (20x intended) by
a. human error
b. equipment fault

a. human error: RPA,CQC
b. equipment fault: RPA, HSE, MDA

30

3 functions of training

ensure staff know:
-risks of x rays
-necessary precautions
-importance of complying with legislations

31

recommended training continuation

1 day course every 5 years

32

certificate required by operators

NEBDN or BDA certificate in dental radiography

33

certificate required to process x ray

certificate of dental nursing or equivalent