Digital Imaging Flashcards Preview

Year 3 Radiography > Digital Imaging > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digital Imaging Deck (45):

how many pixels/matrix in average image

256x256=65536 pixels


what is a pixel

image made up of pixels (picture elements)
each pixel has specific grey shade (black to white)
pixels arranged in a matrix of fixed dimension


define image sharpness

how well you can distinguish 2 close together objects


how is spatial resolution measured

line pairs per mm (lp/mm)


spatial resolution of
a. conventional film
b. human eye can resolve
c. current dental systems use

a. conventional film: 22lp/mm
b. human eye can resolve:8
c. current dental systems use:between 6 and 22


what is pixel shade

each pixel assigned a shade of grey depending on amount of radiation that has reached the sensor


what is number of grey shades dependent on

bit depth of image file


how to calculate bit depth

2 to power n


2 types of dental digital imaging technologies and name examples

-direct: virtually instant image. Charge couple devices (CCDs), complementary metal oxide semi-conductor (CMOS)

-indirect: plate must be read --> several seconds before image available. computer radiography plates


process of direct digital imaging

1. scintillation layer converts x rays to light
2. semi-conductor based pixel array converts light to electron charge


compare process of CCD and CMOS

plate exposed to light --> energy released
CCD: light passed along pixels and read at the end
CMOS: light read from each pixel individually


adv/disadvantages of CCD and CMOS

CCD: -expensive to manufacture (have to transport charge across chip without converting)
-create high quality low noise images
-higher fill factor
-better pixel uniformity


explain fill factor and apply to CCD/CMOS

how much of pixel converts light to charge.
CCD: whole pixel catches light and converts it to charge --> high fill factor
CMOS: space on each pixel for microcircuitry for detection so less efficient conversion of light energy (lower fill factor)


explain pixel uniformity and apply to CCD/CMOS

same amount of amplification from each pixel
CCD: same in all pixels because light is passed between pixels
CMOS: all individual detection --> poor pixel uniformity (bad)


how digital x rays are seen on pc stages

scintillation layer --> pixels --> wiring (voltage) --> analogue digital converter (ADC) --> converted to discreet numbers for digital signal --> image seen on PC


matrix number for
b. white 0
b. white: 255


why are wireless sensors good

use less radiofrequency transmission (less xray exposure)


why are all in one digital imaging devices bad 2

-have to hold it --> unsteady, blur
-operator has to stand v close to x ray --> exposure to x rays


2 alternative names for indirect digital imaging

-photostimulable phosphor plates PSPs
-computed radiography CR


how do PSPs work

-plastic plate coated with storage phosphor material sensitive to x rays
-phosphor stores x ray energy (like latent image in photographic film)
-plate placed in laser reader/computer which releases photon energy as light


what is a phosphor

anything that converts one energy to another ie x rays --> light


what way round to put in phosphor plates and why

magnet side away from machine, otherwise would get image of magnet


advantages of PSPs over CCD/ CMOS 5

-larger variety of imaging areas
-no bulky connecting cable
-slimmer imaging plate (no electricity built in)
-cost: PSP £20-50 per plate, CCD/CMOS £1000+ per sensor
-has linear response to xrays over a wider range than most CCD/CMOS (no blooming)


explain blooming

overload of pixels and bleeding in to adjacent pixels --> sensor does not respond in linear fashion to areas of high radiolucency eg pharynx


disadvantages of PSP 3

-plates must be processed within 8 hours or image faded
-requires separate processing (reading device) --> takes longer
-requires careful handling to prevent scratches


define radiographic density

overall image blackness (denser=blacker)


define radiographic contrast

degree of difference in density between structures


Define film speed

sensitivity of x rays to film (F,E,D) --> how black film will get


define detector sensitivity

same as film speed but for digital


define image sharpness
what is this the same as

ability to display fine image detail and discriminate between adjacent structures
same as spatial resolution


define noise

presence of random speckled appearance in digital image due to electronic noise


how to overcome noise

increased exposure (signal)


what 5 things can be edited using digital imaging. explain each

-brightness: raises or lowers grey levels by same amount
-sharpening/edge enhancement: emphasises differences in densities
-negative image
-distance measurement, eg for implants/perio


relationship between noise and exposure

more x ray dose --> less noise (but bad for pt)


eg of when sharpening/edge enhancement may be used

to see endo files


compare CCD,PSP,film diagnosis ability

equal (caries,periapical lesions, seeing endo files)


7 disadvantages of physical archival of images /notes

-staff to file/retrieve
-can only see at one place/time
-limited options for electronic transfer
-only as good as person making record
-risk of loss due to fire/flooding
-risk of losing due to misfiling etc


x ray archive system used here

picture archiving and communications system (PACS)


PACS architecture

see slide. modalities (x ray machines in hosp)
--> acquisition gateways
--> DICOM storage (harddrive for city/country)
other way: can be retrieved by DICOM query/retrieve on any PACS display workstations


what does DICOM stand for

digital imaging and communications in medicine


what is DICOM

industry standard for communication/management of medical imaging info
PACS imaging equipment must be DICOM compliant


advantages of digital imaging over film 6

-potential reduced pt dose
-instant/quickly available image
-electronic storage
-can edit image
-less consumables (sensors reusable, don't have to buy film)
-no noxious chemicals -->safer, env favourable
(+ poss fewer processing errors)


4 advantages of electronic storage

-integrate with electronic pt notes
-can view simultaneously at diff sites
-electronic transfer
-less likely to lose/damage image


7 disadvantages of digital imaging

-outlay cost
-cross-infection control
-bulky rigid sensors (not acceptable to pt)
-physical damage to sensors
-limitation on size of sensors
-physical damage to wire on CCD/CMOS
-images can be manipulated (fraud)


explain the process of computed radiography

-helium/neon laser releases red light
-red light releases blue light energy from phosphor (europium-activated barium fluorohalide)
-blue light detected by photomultiplier
-photomultiplier converts energy light --> electrical
-ADC: amplifies signal and converts it electric --> digital
-image seen on workstation