Flashcards in Religion, paper 3: Units 9 and 10 Deck (39):
What is revelation (in Religion)?
God revealing or showing something of himself. The ways in which god has made himself known to humans
What are three examples of revelation
The Bible, God revealing his name to Moses from the burning bush, Jesus (who is the final revelation)
‘I am who I am’ Exodus 3:14
‘He [Jesus] reflects the glory of God and bears the very stamp of his nature’ Hebrews 1:3
What’s a vision?
A visual appearance, usually of Jesus, Mary, and angel of a saint
What do Catholics view visions as
Private revelations that are God showing Christians his loving and mysterious nature. Visions only accepted if they don’t contradict anything taught by the Church
What are the two different types of visions
Corporeal visions: physically seeing something
Imaginative visions: seeing something in dreams
Give two example of biblical visions
Biblical: Abraham visited by God with a promise of protection and reward
During transfiguration of Jesus, Moses and Elijah appeared to Jesus, James and John, and the voice of God spoke ‘This is my beloved son... listen to him’ Matthew 17:5
Give an example of a non biblical vision
- 1424, peasant called Joan (St Joan of Arc) had visions of Saints Michael, Catherine and Margaret
- she was instructed to force the French from her homeland
What’s a miracle?
Something that appears to break the law or nature
Give two examples of biblical miracles
- Moses parting and crossing the Red Sea (Exodus)
- Jesus turning water into wine at the wedding in Cana (John)
- Jesus healing a blind man by placing his hands on his eyes (Mark)
Give two examples of non biblical miracles
- Virgin Mary appeared to Juan Diego in Mexico City in 1531. Her image hasn’t faded and has avoided fire and bomb damage
- Virgin Mary appeared to Bernadette Soubirous in 1858 in Lourdes, France. She pointed to a spring, which is now visited by over 5 million people a year. Around 70 verified healing miracles have happened there
What is a religious experience and what do Catholics believe about them?
It’s a feeling of the presence of God. Catholics believe they confirm Gods role in the world, even though there’s a lack of evidence for religious experiences.
What is the Principle Of Credulity? How does it link to religious experiences?
Richard Swinburne (a Christian) said it is reasonable to believe the world is probably how we experience it
Therefore, unless we have a specific reason to question a religious experience, it is possible that it is evidence for God.
Who argues that wish fulfilment is argument for religious experiences not being proof God exists?
Sigmund Freud: adults still have childlike feelings and great delusions
Summarise the design or teleological argument
- there is design in the world, must be a designer, this is God.
- One of St Thomas Aquinas’ five ways to prove God
-William Paley’s watch analogy: if you find a watch in a field, you know it has a designer
Summarise the cosmological argument
- follows universal law of cause and affect; something must have caused the universe
- St Thomas Aquinas proposed God was the first cause of the universe
- Ancient Greek thinkers Plato and Aristotle called the fist cause of all other moving things the ‘prime mover’
Who produced the inconsistent triad and what is it?
J.L.Mackie; the combination of any two positions (evil exists, God is omnibenevolent, God is omnipotent) means the third is logically impossible
What do Catholics argue about the existence of suffering
Natural evil (evil from natural event humans cannot control) are a test of faith and an opportunity to do good
Moral evil (evil from actions of humans) is the price we pay for free will, God still encourages us to act the right way by giving us a conscience
What are three biblical responses to the problem of suffering
- Job; God allows Job to be tested and tormented by Satan, faith gives strength to those suffering + shows suffering may not be something understood by humans
- Psalms; 119 teaches Christians they can learn from previous suffering
- New Testament; God who suffered through Jesus is revealed, any problem of evil has Christ at the answer, there must be a higher purpose humans can’t understand
What are the two theodicies in response to suffering
St Augustine; evil is an absence of good, it exists due to abuse of free will, free will must be used to choose good
St Irenaeus; suffering allows humans to develop and grow, learn to make correct moral choices. We are created in God’s image but are incomplete, so must learn to be like him
What are the two practical responses to suffering
Prayer; suffering shared in prayer
Charity; helping others is the same as helping Christ (parable of sheep and goats, Matthew 2£:31-46)
Those who help others in need will gain salvation
What do Catholics believe about marriage
It is established in the creation story in genesis. Church sees marriage as uniting couple as best environment to raise children
Marriage is a sacrament called ‘holy matrimony)
What did St Paul say about marriage?
Marriage bears witness to the everlasting love of Christ for his Church, husbands should love their wives as Jesus loved the church (Ephesians 5:25-26)
What are the four marks of marriage
Marriage is Loving, lifelong, exclusive and fruitful
Fruitful = open to the possibility of children. Infertile couples ‘can radiate a fruitfulness of charity, of hospitality and sacrifice’ CCC 1654
What does the church teach about sexual relationships?
It should be martial, unitive, and Procreative
Sex is a ‘joy and pleasure’ CCC 2362 and a sign of ‘spiritual communion’ CCC 2360
What is cohabitation
When a couple live together (and probably have sex) before marriage
What’s extramarital sex?
Adultery or having an affair
What does the church teach about marriage and why?
- Family created by God and is the basic unit of society. The Holy Family (Mary, Joseph and Jesus) provide the perfect model to follow
- It is called the ‘domestic Church’ CCC 1666
- it is called ‘a communion of love’ by Pope Benedict XV
What is the general view of family accepted by Catholics and non religious people
‘A family is any unit committed to sharing resources and to mutual support and the welfare of children’ (A humanist Discussion of family matters)
‘Parents have the mission of teaching their children to pray and to discover their vocation as children of God’ CCC 2226
What are the five main types of family and which one does the church support
Nuclear: two parents and their children, church supported
Blended: a couple where one or both has children from previous relationships
Extended: including grandparents, aunts, uncles etc living together
Same sex parents
Give three examples of ways the Catholic Church/parishes are obligated to help families
- Family worship (eg family masses)
- groups for children (eg youth clubs + children liturgies in mass)
- classes for parents (train parents on how to be a good catholic parent)
- counselling (parish priests are trained councillors)
- family group movement (eg parish friendship groups, open to all)
- donations to struggling families (eg St Vincent de Paul charity)
What is the catholic teaching on birth control?
Any kind of artificial contraception is a sin. Natural family planning is the only means of birth control allowed.
Life begins at contraception and the unborn child is created in the image of God
What is many Christians teaching on birth control?
Contraception isn’t a sin, although abortion goes against sanctity of life so is not okay.
Situation Ethics - decide what is write or wrong depending on circumstances
‘If contraception results in every child being a wanted child, and in better, healthier lives for women, it must be a good thing’ A humanist Discussion of family matters
What does the Catholic Church believe about divorce, annulment and remarriage
Divorce from sacramental marriage is not possible, annulment can only take place under specific circumstances. Remarriage is only allowed if a partner dies.
What is Church teaching on divorce
A covenant is made during sacrament of marriage that cannot be broken by earthly powers
Separation and legal divorce allowed for safety and health of couple and children, but in eyes of god they’re still married, so cannot get remarried
‘I hate divorce, says the Lord the God of Israel’ Malachi 2:16
What does the church teach about roles of men and women in the family
‘Husband and wife are called to give themselves
in love and in the gift of life’ CCC 2207
Domestic work holds same value as work to generate income
What does the church teach about roles of men and women in church + life
Men and women should have equal roles and rights
Yet this is contradicted by woman being unable to be ordained
Church of England allow women to be ordained etc
What is gender prejudice
What is discrimination
Gender prejudice: believing people of one gender are inferior or superior on the basis of their sex
Discrimination: treating people less favourably because of their gender, ethnicity, sexuality, age, class, etc
How do Catholics use evidence to oppose (but also support) prejudice and discrimination
- God has no preferences between people ‘there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus’ Galatians 3:28
- ‘women should keep silence in the churches’ 1 Corinthians 14:34. Paul may have been trying to reduce chaos in the early church