Flashcards in Religion: paper 1, units 1,2,3,4 Deck (89):
What source of wisdom and authority backs up the existence of the Trinity?
The Nicene Creed: I believe in one God, the Father almighty... I believe in one Lord Jesus Christ.. I believe in the Holy Spirit’
Wat is the trinity?
The belief that one God is three persons. Each person is fully God.
What does revelation mean? (Religion)
Something that is revealed by God to humans
What does the trinity reveal about the nature of God to Catholics?
Outside as father and creator
Beside us as son and saviour
Inside us as we are strengthened by the Holy Spirit
Over what time period did God create the universe according to Genesis?
In six days. Rested on the seventh
What are the two interpretations of genesis?
Literal interpretation (creationists) and metaphorical interpretation (Catholics)
What is the belief of dominion and stewardship?
The belief humans should take care of the Earth and rule over it
What do Catholics believe about our creation in relation to God?
Humans were created imago Dei, meaning in the image of God
‘Let us make man in our image’ genesis 1:26
What do some evangelical conservative Christians believe about a balance of dominion and stewardship?
Stewardship (caring for the world) is pointless as Jesus will soon return, which will mean the end of the world anyway
What is the incarnation?
God becoming fully human in Jesus
‘The Word [jesus] became flesh and dwelt among us’ John 1:14
What is some supposed evidence that Jesus was Not fully divine?
Accused of blasphemy: forgave the sins of a paralysed man, allowed disciples to pick corn on the sabbath
What is the paschal mystery
The passion, death, resurrection and ascension of Jesus
What does redemption mean in relation to the paschal mystery?
Jesus life was redeemed (exchanged) for freedom from sin for all humans
What is redemptive efficacy (in relation to the paschal mystery)?
The bringing about of human redemption by Jesus’ obedience to God and suffering
How is the paschal mystery expressed in the church today?
Catholics continue to participate in the paschal mystery through the life of the church, the Eucharist is the most important expression of the paschal mystery in the church today . Accepting the Eucharist is a sign of accepting God’s offer of salvation
Why is the Holy Spirit significant in the New Testament?
Empowered apostles at Pentecost, which is seen as the beginning of the Christian Church. Peter understood Jesus and Paschal Mystery far better after receiving Holy Spirit.
What does the Church teach about salvation?
It’s not something humans can achieve themselves, they accept it from God, who offers it to everyone. They have to accept that Jesus has saved them from sin.
‘God sent the Son into the world... [so] The world might be saved through him [Jesus]’ John 3:17
What are the seven sacraments? Give a brief description of each
Baptism - freed from sin and become children of God. Sacrament of induction.
Confirmation - receive Holy Spirit
Eucharist - receive Christ’s body and blood
Matrimony - graces provided for loving relationship and procreation
Holy Orders - graces provided for ordained ministers of the church
Reconciliation - repentance of sins restores the relationship with God
Anointing of the sick - god healing grace unites the suffering person with Jesus’ passion
The Christian study of the last things in human life: death, judgement, heaven, hell and purgatory
What do Catholics believe happens when they die?
They’re resurrected as Jesus was, there will be a reward of eternal life for those who pleaded God
‘Whoever lives and believes in me shall never die’ John 11:25-26
‘Each one may receive good or evil, according to what he has done in the body’ 2 Corinthians 5:10
What’s particular judgement
After death a person will go to heaven, purgatory and then heaven, or hell
What’s general or last judgement?
The end of time. Everyone, living and dead, will be resurrected and a final and eternal judgement will take place
What is heaven?
Eternal life with god, ‘a life of love and indescribable joy’ CCC 1027
A stage of purification, ‘this enables people to reach the holiness required to get into heaven’ CCC 1030
What is hell?
This is not punishment
from God but the absence of the love, generosity and community of God
What’s a sacrament?
A religious ritual performed in the life of the Church that brings people into holiness. It’s an outward sign of an inward gift, instituted by Christ (Christian church believe Jesus introduced the seven sacraments) in order to give grace (gods life, presence or holiness) to a human being
What does ‘the sacramental nature of really’ mean?
Means finding the grace of god in the physical world
What are the sacraments of initiation?
Baptism, confirmation, Eucharist
What are the sacraments Of healing?
Reconciliation and anointing of the sick
What are the sacraments of vocation
Matrimony and holy orders
What do Catholics, orthodox, most Protestant Christians and some Protestant Christians believe about sacraments
Catholic + orthodox: all sacraments performed and a sacrament
Most Protestants: only baptism and Eucharist are sacraments
Some Protestants: no sacraments are sacraments
What is liturgical worship?
Structured, public service of worship set out by the Catholic Church
What is a doctrine
Teaching that has been passed on from the earliest times through the Catholic Church. This is called the apostolic tradition
What is a creed?
A formal expression of what the church believes
What is the mass?
The central act of worship celebrated nearly every day in the Catholic Church
What are the four main parts of the mass?
Introductory rites, liturgy of the word, liturgy of the Eucharist, concluding rites
What is the funeral rite
Ceremonies carried out when a catholic dies. Celebrates persons journey to eternal life ‘I look forward to... the life of the world to come’ Niceness Creed
What’s efficacious prayer?
Prayer to help and encourage a deceased person
Why is ‘The Lord’s Prayer’ significant
The our father, It was given to the disciples by Jesus
Is ‘the most perfect of prayers’ CCC 2763
What are the two types of prayer
Formal: formulaic, words from the churches tradition
Extempore prayer: informal, uses own words, without planning
What is popular piety
Worship that is not part of the formal liturgy of the church. Is non liturgical
Give three examples of popular piety
The rosary , Eucharistic adoration, stations of the cross
‘Expressions of piety extend the liturgical life of the church, but do not replace it’ CCC 1675
What do Protestants believe about the rosary stations of the cross and Eucharistic adoration
Rosary some don’t use because its connected to the elevated status of Mary
Protestants don’t use stations of cross, but do focus on suffering of Jesus
Protestant Christians don’t believe in moment of transubstantiation
What are three key sites of pilgrimage? Give a brief description of purpose + beliefs
Jerusalem: jesus’ death and resurrection, common place of pilgrimage for all Christians
Rome: home of pope, non catholic Christians don’t recognise authority of pope
Lourdes: Mary appeared to st Bernadette 18 time in 1858, catholic pilgrimage as other Christians don’t elevate Mary
What do some Protestant denominations believe about pilgrimage?
It’s not a central part of Christian life, but is encouraged
What are the seven themes of catholic social teaching
1 sacredness of life and dignity of human person
2 call to family, community, participation
3 human rites, responsibility to protect them
4 preferential option for poor and vulnerable
5 dignity of work and rights of workers
6 solidarity with all people as one family
7 stewardship and care for gods creation
What are three things catholic social teaching things society should provide
Reconciliation (protecting dignity and rights of human person matter where they are)
What are the two ways a person can show mercy
Corporal (bodily) works of mercy
Spiritual worKs of mercy
What is the idea of ‘mission’
The idea a person is sent to others to help them or bring them something of benefit
What is evangelism
To proclaim and live out the gospel, as Jesus sent the apostles to do
What four things are n the Old Testament?
Law, includes 613 commandments revealed to Moses
History, of Jewish people
Prophets, messages from God
Writings, tell stories and educate
Outline two different Christian beliefs on the bible
Catholic bible includes seven deuterocanonical books not in the Protestant bible
Some Eastern Orthodox Churches includes additional scriptures not recognised by Catholic Church
What are the three different ways to interpret the bible?
Inspired word of God: Catholic view. Human authors were inspired by Holy Spirit to write bible. ‘All scripture is inspired by God) 2 Timothy 3:16
Literal word of God: Some Christians. No mistakes possible.
Liberal view: some Christians, bible written by regular humans, God not involved. Includes spiritual not literal truths.
What is the magisterium? What’s its job?
The teaching authority of the Church, held by the Pope and his Bishops, given by Jesus with power of Holy Spirit. Role is to protect Bible and apostolic tradition for modern Christians.
What does pontifical mean?
Something directly declared by the pope. Immaculate conception and Assumption of Mary declared so far
Something that can’t be wrong.
What’s Conciliar mean?
Something that’s gone through an ecumenical council to be decided and discussed
What is the second Vatican council?
A large ecumenical council held in the Vatican to discuss teaching and belief in the modern world
What are the four constitutions produced at the second Vatican council?
The constitution on the sacred liturgy: reform of the liturgy
Dogmatic constitution on the church: beliefs about the church
Dogmatic constitution on divine revelation: scripture
Pastoral constitution on the church in the modern world: humanity and society
What is ecumenism
Unity among Christian denominations
What does ‘the body of christ’ mean when relating to the church?
The individuals who form the Christian community.
Part of God’s ‘Holy Nation’ 1 Peter 2:9
‘Christ has no body but yours’ St Teresa of Avila
Jesus is the head that leads the body
Who is the head of the church and who is the body of Christ for: Catholics, Orthodox, Protestants
Catholic: Pope head, Catholics body
Orthodox: Councils of patriarchs working with agreement of people head, Orthodox Church body
Protestants: Bible as gods word is authority/head, all Christians body
What are the four marks of the church
Holy, set apart for special purpose, Jesus is source of holiness
one, unity of trinity + united in mass
catholic, meaning ‘universal’, jesus universally present
apostolic, apostolic tradition as authority passed down
‘We believe in one holy catholic and apostolic church’ Nicene creed
What does ‘the immaculate conception’ mean
Mary was born without sin, so she could give birth to Jesus without sin
What role does Mary play in the church
She’s the mother of the church since she is the mother of Jesus and the church is the body of Christ
She has ‘union with Christ’ CCC 964
What are ‘Marian solemnities’
Important feast days dedicated to Mary
What is morality?
Doing what is right. Gospel gave clear examples of this, mostly through Jesus
What three things should influence a Catholics ethical decision making
Their conscience, informed by scripture and tradition, under authority of magisterium
What is ‘the immaculate conception’ and who believes in it?
Mary was conceived without original sin. Everyone who believes in the New Testament believes in it because it’s in the Bible
What is ‘the assumption’?. Who believes in it?
Mary going straight to heaven because she has no sin. Catholics believe in this as it’s part of the CCC
What does the word church mean?
The ‘house of the lord’
‘A worthy place for prayer and sacred ceremonial’ CCC 1181
Give three features of church and an explanation of what they symbolise
- many churches face east, sun rises in the east, as Jesus rose on day of resurrection
- many churches are cruciform (shaped like a cross), cross is a symbol of the church, a reminder of Jesus’ death and sacrifice
- some churches are round, eternal nature of God
- some churches are octagonal, represent a star, bringing light to the world
- high vaulted ceilings and spires, connect to heaven and reach towards God
- stained glass windows, tell stories of saints from bible
What’s the purpose, meaning and significance of the Lectern?
Book stand from which readings proclaimed, redemption achieved through responding to the word of God
‘A Suitable place for announcing His (God’s) message’ CCC 1184
What’s the purpose, meaning and significance of the Altar?
Table that is a focal point inside the church. Represents the table at the last supper + the altar in the Temple Moses built
‘The altar is also the table of the Lord’ CCC 1182
What’s the purpose, meaning and significance of the crucifix?
Cross with image of crucified Jesus on. Aid to prayer, reminder of Jesus’ suffering and how redemption is made possible.
What’s the purpose, meaning and significance of the Tabernacle?
Box where consecrated host is kept. ‘Dwelling place’ of Jesus in a physical sense in the church, links to Tabernacle Moses kept Ten Commandments in u
What are sacred objects?
Objects such as relics, rosary beads, candles and holy water
Also called ‘objects of devotion’
What are the sacred vessels
Key in celebration of Eucharist
Chalice for wine, paten for large host used by priest, ciborium for rest of hosts
What’s a sarcophagus?
A box like container for a corpse. Popes often buried in them today. Used as a physical reminder of person buried, and a focus on prayer
What are hunger cloths?
Used in the Middle Ages to cover altar during lent. Covered in images from bible to help those who couldn’t read. Still used in developing countries as a reminder that God is with them.
What are the four types of Catholic artwork?
Paintings, frescos, mosaics, drawings
What is the brief history of artwork in Catholicism?
Many destroyed in 8th and 9th centuries during Iconoclasm and again during Reformation
Renaissance art (1300-1700 ce) usually focused on religious themes
Explain the artwork of ‘The Sistine Chapel’
In the Sistine Chapel, the Vatican. Made by Michelangelo in 1512. He tried to remain faithful to scripture. Has layers of meaning for purpose of debate
What are Christian beliefs on artwork in the church
All church art must be ‘evoking and glorifying, in faith and adoration, the transcendent mystery of God’ CCC 2502
Orthodox Christians have a long history of iconography, icons used in public liturgy + encourage use in private meditation
What are Catholic beliefs on sculptures and statues?
Most churches have several statues
They’re a way of expressing God given talents
In the Bible, God directed construction of several statues
Give three examples of symbolism or imagery historically used in Christianity
-Cross and crucifix: reminder of Jesus’ death and resurrection, used since 5th century
-The Fish: used by early Christians for secrecy
- the chi rho: first 2 letters of word ‘christ’ in Greek. Used by Romans when Christianity official religion
- the dove: dove links to Holy Spirit + peace, used in artwork
- alpha and omega: jesus says ‘I am the alpha and the omega’ Revelation 22:13, shows his eternal nature. Found on paschal candle + altar decorations
What are the two forms of drama in Christianity
Mystery plays (learn and remember bible stories) and passion plays (focus on story of Jesus’ death and resurrection)
What are the four types of music used in worship?
Hymns- religious songs for praise, adoration or prayer
Plainchant- singing without music
Psalms- found in Old Testament
Worship songs- contemporary.