Religion, War and Peace Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Religion, War and Peace Deck (19)
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What do religious believers mean by peace?

Not just absence of conflict.
Feeling of well-being - inner peace, happiness and security through religious faith.
Inner peace through prayer and meditation can bring calmness that helps a person avoid quarrels with others.


What do religious believers mean by justice?

Fairness, full human rights, living without fear or threats, making sure those who commit crimes are brought to trial.


What do Christians mean by the sanctity of life?

All human life is precious and should not be destroyed.
Life is God-given and sacred.
Not up to humans to take other human life - following the 5th Commandment 'do not kill'.


What is pacifism?

- The belief that any form of violence or war is unacceptable
- Being unwilling to use any force or violence
- When someone tries to promote peace and goodwill at all times
- Avoiding all kinds of harm and violence to others
- For example Quakers believe that violence and war go against the teachings of Christianity. They actively campaign for non-violence in the world.


What Bible teachings would encourage Christians to support peace and reconciliation instead of war?

• “Those who live by the sword die by the sword”
• “Blessed are the peacemakers as they will inherit the earth”
• “Love thy neighbour”
• “Treat others as you would like to be treated”
• “Turn the other cheek”
• “Thou shall not kill”


What are Buddhists views on war and peace?

Despite Buddhist violence in countries like Burma and Sri Lanka, Buddhists should be against all wars and violence. For example, non-violent teachings include:
• The first precept – do not harm another living thing
• Karma – fighting and war will lead to bad karma and a bad rebirth
• Metta – war does not show loving kindness
However, maybe war can be conducted if the intention outweighs the evil. This would be ‘Right Intention’. An example might be fighting to end genocide.


What is the Just War Theory?

Philosophers Augustine and Aquinas developed the theory to give guidelines based on the Bible for when a war can be justified. Christian churches today will base their decision to support a war or not depending on how far the following conditions have been met:
- Just cause.
- Innocent are not harmed and the destruction is limited.
- Declared by a Legitimate government.
- Last resort.
- Reasonable chance of success.
- Weapons used are proportional to the cause.
- Ultimate goal is Peace.


What is a Holy War?

Most people find the idea of Holy War a contradiction. Killing people seems far from holy. However in ancient times people believed God was on their side and had called them to fight his enemies. In OT there are several accounts of battles fought under God’s protection. Those who take part in a holy war believe they will receive a spiritual reward e.g. entry to heaven. Some holy wars are fought to gain back holy land which has been taken away e.g. The Crusades.


What is terrorism?

An act or threat of act that is designed to influence the government or to intimidate the public or a section of the public which is made to advance a political, religious or ideological cause. For example 9/11 and the London bombings


Why would Christians oppose terrorism?

Most Christians oppose all kinds of terrorism and believe terrorism because it:
- Prevents reconciliation between different people.
- Aggravates problems and tensions.
- Leads to suffering and harm.
However - IRA attacks on British mainland to unite Ireland had a Christian basis...


Why would Buddhists oppose terrorism?

1st Precept - 'Avoid taking life' = Non-violence (ahimsa),
2nd Precept – 'Avoid taking what is not given' (land, money)
Often about hate and as 1 of 3 Poisons -> suffering
Noble Eightfold Path – Right Action, Livelihood, Awareness, Intentions (linked to karma).


Who are the victims of war?

Militarily Families


Name an organisation religious believer may join to help victims of war and describe what they do.

Red Cross
Protecting people during wartime, but also Provides First Aid training
Emergency response to disaster zones, and refugee support. Feb 2016 helped deliver vital food and medicine to half a million people living in besieged Syrian towns.


Name a religious individual from South Africa who has helped to create peace and reconciliation and describe his role in this.

Desmond Tutu
Archbishop of South Africa - key speaker against apartheid in South Africa.
When it ended he was put in charge of Truth and Reconciliation Commission to try and prevent revenge attacks and conflict.


What is the role of the UN in ending conflict?

Set up at the end of WW2 to persuade countries to settle differences without fighting.
Aims to protect human rights and establish world peace.
PEACE KEEPING FORCES in cases of civil war to protect civilians and provide aid.


What is NATO? What does it do?

Military alliance created in 1949 of 26 countries in Europe, USA and Canada.
If 1 country is attacked, others will see it as attack on them e.g. when terrorists attack others will support and help them.


What are the causes of war?

• to defend their country
• to defend their beliefs, religion, freedom and way of life or to impose them on others
• to defend or protect an ally
• to remove their own leader
• to gain more land/territory
• to gain wealth, power or important resources
• to stop genocide


What are the consequences of war?

• death
• injury
• destruction of culture, economy and infrastructure (including poverty)
• freedom
• disease and famine
• cost


Who is the Dalai Lama and what does he do to promote peace?

Dalai Lama – the Buddhist spiritual leader of Tibet who campaigns for Tibetan liberation from Chinese rule. Although forced into exile by the Chinese government, he believes all violence is wrong as it goes against the first precept – not to harm others. He has become an international symbol for peace.