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Flashcards in Renal 1 Deck (33):
1

Name the 3 main categories of clinical renal syndromes discussed in class and their major findings

-Acute renal failure: oliguria and rapid rise in serum creatinine
-nephrotic syndrome: proteinuria >3.5 g
-nephritic syndrome: hematuria

2

What is the basic functional unit of the kidney?

nephron

3

How can you tell proximal vs distal convoluted tubules when looking at the kidneys?

in the proximal convoluted tubules the “brush” border has sloughed and can be seen in the lumen; thus, the lumen appears partially filled.

4

Acute renal failure is due to _______ (anatomic location) injury

tubular

5

Nephrotic syndrome is due to __________ defects

glomerular capillary filtration defects

6

nephritis is due to breaks in the ______ loops

glomerular capillary

7

Name 3 causes of acute renal failure

1. acute tubular necrosis
2. acute interstitial nephritis
3. acute pyelonephritis

8

Name 3 causes of nephrotic syndrome

1. membranous nephropathy
2. focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
3. minimal change disease

9

Name 3 types of acute nephritic syndrome

1. crescentic glomerulonephritis
2. lupus nephritis (proliferative type)
3. post-infectious glomerulonephritis

10

Name 2 causes of "isolated hematuria"

1. IgA nephropathy
2. Alport's disease

11

T/F- if untreated or non-responsive, acute renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, and nephritic syndrome can all progress to chronic renal failure

True

12

Name 3 common histological findings of chronic renal failure

1. glomerular sclerosis
2. interstitial fibrosis
3. tubular atrophy

13

What type of IF pattern would you see in Anti-GBM disease?

linear capillary loop patterns

14

What type of IF pattern would you see in membranous nephropathy or lupus nephritis?

Granular capillary loop pattern

15

What type of IF pattern would you see in IgA nephropathy or Lupus nephritis?

mesangial pattern

16

Lupus nephritis can display what two types of IF staining?

mesangial or granular capillary loop pattern

17

What is a podocyte?

glomerular epithelial cell

18

What are two main classifications or mechanisms of glomerular injury?

1. immune mechanisms
-immune complex (e.g. membranous glomerulonephropathy)
-T-cell mediated (e.g. minimal change disease)
2. non-immune mechanisms (genetic structural disorders e.g. Alports syndrome)

19

What disease is caused by a mutation in type IV collagen gene causing structural weakness to the GBM which is composed of type IV collagen?

Alport's sydnrome

20

What do they mean by focal vs diffuse vs global vs segmental?

Glomerular changes can be focal (<50% of all glomeruli) or diffuse (in all or almost all the glomeruli), and segmental (only a part of the glomerulus) or global (the entire glomerulus).

21

Name two causes of acute pre-renal failure

1. cardiac shock
2. dehydration

22

Name one cause of post-renal acute renal failure

1. obstructive stone

23

Name the general example given in class for the cause of acute intrarenal failure

tubulointerstitial diseases (acute tubular necrosis, acute interstitial nephritis, acute pyelonephritis)

24

T/F- renal tubular disease can occur secondary to severe glomerular diseases?

true

25

What is the most common cause of acute renal failure?

ATN

26

Is ATN usually reversible?

yes (very often)

27

What are two common causes of ATN?

-hypovolemia/ischemia
-drug toxicity

28

What will you see histologically in ATN?

-necrotic debris in tubules
-dilated tubules with flattened epithelium

29

Most common cause of AIN?

DRUG INDUCED
-antibiotics
-NSAIDs

30

Symptoms of AIN?

-fever, rash, eosinophilia
-rising serum creatinine and oliguria

31

If you see eosinophils in the interstitial what should you suspect as the cause?

DRUGS

32

T/F- acute pyelonephritis presents very similar in appearance histologically to AIN but the inflammatory infiltrates in pyelonephritis include numerous neutrophils

true

33

If you have chronic pyelonephritis, what organ will your kidney begin to resemble?

The atrophic tubules look like the thyroid gland architecture and so sometimes called “thyroidization”