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Flashcards in Renal 2 Deck (29):
1

Name 3 features of nephritic sydnrome

1. dark colored urine
2. erythrocytes in urine microscopically
3. The patient may also have renal failure (Increase in Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen/BUN) in which case this is called acute nephritic syndrome

2

name 2 diseases that cause asymptomatic isolated hematuria

1. IgA nephropathy
2. Alport syndrome

3

Whats the most common type of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide?

IgA nephropathy

4

Who does IgA nephropathy typically affect?

-children and young adults

5

Upon staining, what would you see microscopically for IgA nephropathy?

mesangial proliferation/hypercellularity (>3 cells per mesangial region)

6

T/F- although most patients with IgA nephropathy have a good prognosis, proteinuria is a predictor of progressive disease

true

7

How do you treat IgA nephropathy?

No specific treatment available, in progressive cases steroids and other immunosuppressive agents may be tried with variable success rates.

8

What is the "vasculitic variant" of IgA nephropathy?

Henoch Schonlein purpura
-usually seen in children

9

name 3 symptoms associated with Henoch Schonlein purpura

1. arthritis
2. abdominal pain
3. rashes

10

If you biopsied the vessels in someone with HSP, what would you find?

IgA in subdermal vessels

11

What are the characteristics of alport syndrome?

-mutation in alpha-5 chain of type IV collagen (X linked dominant)
-deafness
-eye abnormalities
-GBM thickening, splitting, and lamination
-"basket weave" pattern upon staining

12

Which two conditions (not diseases per say but descriptive pathological changes seen in the glomerulus) cause acute nephritic syndrome?

1. crescentic glomerulonephritis
2. diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis

13

T/F- crescentic glomerulonephritis has a low morbidity

False, Severe renal failure and death can result if untreated.

14

What forms the crescents?

Crescents are proliferation of cells lining the Bowman’s space
along with incoming inflammatory cells as result of glomerular
capillary fibrinoid necrosis

15

Describe the expected IF stain, lab values, and causes of Type 1 crescentic glomerulonephritis

-IF: linear capillary loop IgG
-Labs: elevated serum anti-GBM antibody
-Cause: Anti-GBM disease (aka Goodpasture's disease)

16

Describe the expected IF stain, lab values, and causes of Type II crescentic glomerulonephritis

-IF: granular deposits in mesangium or capillary loops
-Labs: elevated Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), anti-dsDNA etc.
-Cause: lupus nephritis, IgA nephropathy

17

Describe the expected IF stain, lab values, and causes of Type III crescentic glomerulonephritis

-IF: no deposits
-Labs: ANCA
-cause: ANCA diseases (wegeners granulomatosis, microscopic polyarteritis)

18

Anti-GBM disease is caused by abnormal production of antibodies against what?

collagen IV basement membrane of glomerulus and lung

19

How do you treat crescentic glomerulonephritis? What do you add for anti-GBM disease?

-treat all with corticosteroids, cytotoxic agents (cyclophosphamide)
-add plasmapharesis for anti-GBM

20

ANCA associated glomerulonephritis is also known as what?

Pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis

21

Crescents imply what?

vasculitis

22

Name 2 causes of diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN)?

1. acute-post streptococcal glomerulonephritis
2. proliferative (active) lupus nephritis

23

How long after a group A strep infection would you see DPGN?

-about 2 weeks

24

Acute post-streptococcal GN would present with what findings?

-acute nephritic syndrome
-renal failure
-hypertension
-low C3
-elevated ASO titer

25

What immune deposits would be seen on IF (immunoflourescence) in post strep glomerulonephritis?

-C3 and IgG deposits in capillary loops (subepithelial deposits "humps")

26

if you see SUBEPITHELIAL HUMPS what is it?

acute post infectious glomerulonephritis

27

What would provide serological evidence of lupus (suggesting proliferative lupus nephritis)?

-anti-nuclear antibody, anti-dsDNA
-low complements c3 and c4

28

A "full house pattern" IF stain suggests what?

IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, C1q all present suggesting proliferative lupus nephritis

29

In contrast to subEPIthelial deposits seen in acute post infectious glomerulonephritis, what would you see in acute lupus nephritis?

subENDOthelial deposits (+full house pattern)