Renal - Anatomy Flashcards Preview

USMLE (S1) Renal > Renal - Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal - Anatomy Deck (26)
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1
Q

Label (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) and (F) on the kidney diagram shown.

A

(A) cortex; (B) medulla; (C) medullary pyramids with papillae; (D) pelvis; (E) ureter; (F) glomerulus

2
Q

Label (A), (B), (C), and (D) on the glomerulus diagram shown.

A

(A) efferent arteriole; (B) Bowman's capsule (parietal layer); (C) podocytes (visceral layer); (D) mesangial cells

3
Q

Label (E), (F), (G), and (H) on the glomerulus diagram shown.

A

(E) basement membrane; (F) afferent arteriole; (G) macula densa; (H) distal renal tubule

4
Q

Label (A), (B), (C), (D), (E), and (F) on the nephron diagram shown.

A

(A) glomerulus; (B) Bowman's capsule; (C) interlobular artery; (D) arcuate artery/vein; (E) interlobar artery/vein; (F) medulla

5
Q

Label (G), (H), (I), and (J) on the nephron diagram shown.

A

(G) collecting duct; (H) vasa recta; (I) renal artery/vein; (J) proximal and distal convoluted tubules

6
Q

Why is the left kidney rather than the right one harvested for transplantation?

A

Because the left kidney has a longer renal vein

7
Q

Ureters pass _____ (over/under) the uterine artery and the ductus deferens.

A

Under

(remember: "water [ureters] under the bridge [artery and ductus deferens]")

8
Q

Renal sinus contains

A

hilum, vessels, perirenal fat, space encapsualted as renal fascia

9
Q

Renal papilla has…

A

the papillary duct = distal portion of collecting duct

10
Q

As blood goes through the glomerulus ...

A

its filtered into filtrate, filtrate moves through nephron, at the end of the nephron is the collecting duct -once filtrate gets into papillary duct at renal papilla-- point of no return between filtrate and urine

11
Q

Where are cortical arteries found in the kidney?

A

The greatest density is in the cortex, but they also can be found in the columns

12
Q

Cortical radiate arteries give rise to:

A

afferent arterioles, carrying blood into glomerulus

13
Q

Describe renal vein entrapment syndrome

A

The left renal vein is trapped between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta, compressing the left renal vein and preventing the return of blood. (The left renal vein gets blood from inferior phrenic, suprarenal, and gonada. Symptoms: hematuria, left flank pain, left testicle pain

14
Q

Blood supply to kidneys is controlled by:

A

Sympathetic nerves

15
Q

Describe Ureters

A

tripartite= abdominal, pelvic, intramural

The ureter crosses into the pelvis at the division between internal and external iliac artery, and it passes under uterine artery

16
Q

Lympahtics

A

common iliac nodes-- lumbar nodes-- cisterna chyli and thoracic duct -from bladder up

bladder drained by external and common iliac nodes and ureter by lumbar nodes and up into thoracic duct and CC

17
Q

What do the ureters pass under?

A

The uterine artery, or ductus deferens ("water under the bridge")

18
Q

What procedure must be careful in not damaging the ureter and causing a ureteral obstruction or leak?

A

ligation of uterine vessels traveling in the cardinal ligament

19
Q

What is the 60-40-20 rule?

A

60% of total body water, 40% ICF, 20% ECF

20
Q

How is blood plasma volume measured?

A

by radiolabeled albumin

21
Q

How is extracellular blood volume measured?

A

by inulin

22
Q

The fenestrated capillary endothelium is responsible for what, in the glomerular filtration barrier?

A

size

23
Q

The fused basement membrane with heparan sulfate is responsible for what, in the glomerular filtration barrier?

A

negative charge barrier

24
Q

reabsorption = ?

A

filtered - excreted

25
Q

secretion =

A

excreted - filtered

26
Q

At what glucose concentration are all transporters in PCT fully saturated? (Tm)

A

375 mg/dL