_____ (Red blood cells/White blood cells) are seen in the urine of patients with bladder cancer; also significant is the _____ (presence/absence) of casts.
Red blood cells; absence
Name three diseases in which red blood cell casts are seen on urinalysis.
Glomerulonephritis, renal ischemia, or malignant hypertension
Name three diseases in which white blood cell casts are seen on urinalysis.
Tubulointerstitial disease, acute pyelonephritis, or transplant rejection
What types of casts would be seen in the urine of a patient with advanced renal disease or chronic renal failure?
In patients with acute cystitis, _____ (red blood cells/white blood cells) are found in the urine, as are the _____ (presence/absence) of casts.
White blood cells; absence
The presence of casts in the urine indicates disease of which organ?
The kidneys; as opposed to the bladder or lower urinary tract
What types of casts would be seen in the urine of a patient with acute tubular necrosis?
Granular ("muddy brown") casts
Name five primary glomerular causes of nephrotic syndrome.
Minimal change disease, membranous glomerulonephritis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis
Name three secondary causes of nephrotic syndrome.
Diabetic nephropathy, amyloidosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus
Name seven causes of nephritic syndrome.
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (Berger's disease), poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - hemolytic uremic syndrome, Alport's syndrome, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and Henoch-Schönlein purpura
Name three categories of etiologies for rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.
Antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies, immune-complex mediated glomerulonephritis, and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis
Which four diseases can cause immune-complex mediated rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis?
Henoch-Schönlein purpura, hypersensitivity vasculitis, cryoglobulinemia, and systemic lupus erythematosus
Which four diseases can cause pauci-immune rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis?
Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyarteritis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and polyarteritis nodosa
What is the pattern of immunofluorescence in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis?
Which cause of nephritic syndrome is characterized by mesangial deposits of immunoglobulin A seen on immunofluorescence and electron microscopy?
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (Berger's disease)
What cause of nephritic syndrome is characterized pathologically by a linear staining pattern with anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies on immunofluorescence?
What type of hypersensitivity reaction is Goodpasture's syndrome?
Type II hypersensitivity
Which cause of nephritic syndrome is characterized pathologically by crescent-moon-shaped deposits in the urinary space seen by light microscopy and immunofluorescence?
Rapidly progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis
What are the major symptoms of Goodpasture's syndrome?
Hemoptysis and hematuria
A genetic mutation in which protein results in Alport's syndrome?
Collagen IV mutation
What glomerular pathology is associated with mild renal disease that often follows an upper respiratory infection or gastroenteritis in adults?
Immunoglobulin A glomerulopathy (Berger's disease)
What cause of nephritic syndrome is characterized on histopathology by a basement membrane that appears to be split?
A 10-year-old boy presents with swollen ankles and periorbital edema, which were beginning to resolve without intervention. On electron microscopy, a kidney biopsy is found to have subepithelial immune complex humps. What form of nephritic syndrome does he have?
Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Wegener's granulomatosis is _____ (c-ANCA/p-ANCA) positive, while microscopic polyarteritis is _______ (c-ANCA/p-ANCA) positive.
Name three disease processes that result in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.
Goodpasture's syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, and microscopic polyarteritis
Which two ANCA-positive vasculitides can result in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis?
Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyarteritis
Which condition is associated with nerve disorders, ocular disorders, and deafness?
Alport's syndrome; symptoms are due to a mutation in type IV collagen
What do the crescent deposits in "crescentic" glomerulonephritis consist of?
Fibrin and plasma proteins with glomerular parietal cells, monocytes, and macrophages
Which cause of nephritic syndrome is characterized pathologically by enlarged hypercellular glomeruli, the presence of neutrophils, and a "lumpy-bumpy" appearance on light microscopy?
Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
What is the underlying mechanism resulting in diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis due to systemic lupus erythematosus?
Subendothelial anti-DNA immune complex deposition