Renal and Metabolic Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Renal and Metabolic Diseases Deck (25):
0

Why do we perform an ictotest?

It has a greater sensitivity to bilirubin than the method used on the strip

1

What can give a false negative urine protein reading?

Very dilute urine

2

Which chemical test relies on sodium nitoprusside as a key reagent?

Ketones

3

Which test relies on the pseudo-peroxidase activity of the analyte?

Blood

4

this disorder results from immune-mediated processes whereby antigen-antibody complexes or complement complexes accumulate in the glomeruli. This induces inflammation that leads to tissue damage.

glomerular disorders

5

Are the specimens in glomerular disorders sterile or non-sterile?

sterile

6

This is the most common cause of acute glomerulonephritis; usually occurs in children and young adults following infection with certain strains of group A strep; inflammation damages glomeruli

Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

7

List symptoms of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

Rapid onset of hematuria and edema; oliguria-->anuria, blood cultures are neg, Urinalysis: mk'd hematuria, RBC casts

8

this is caused by the deposition of immune complexes in glomerulus leading to the formation of crescentic structures which permanently damage the glomerulus; often associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

9

What are urinalysis symptoms of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis?

low glomerular filtration, proteinuria

10

What does the prognosis of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis look like?

progresses to chronic glomerular nephritis and eventually end-stage renal failure

11

This disorder is due to the antiglomerular basement membrane autoantibody that is formed after a viral respiratory infection; complement activation destroys capillaries; commonly progresses to chronic glomerulonephritis

Goodpasture Syndrome

12

Lab finding in Goodpasture Syndrome

Urinalysis: proteinuria, hematuria, and RBC casts

13

this disorder is caused by a marked decrease in renal function resulting from glomerular damage precipitated by other renal disorders; gradually worsening symptoms until eventual kidney failure

chronic glomerulonephritis

14

Common urinalysis findings in chronic glomerulonephritis

Waxy and broad casts (indicating end stage disease)

15

This is a group of symptoms that often occur together following glomerular damage; this damage is coupled with the disruption of the electrical charge of the tubular epithelium resulting in a leaky tubular epithelium; gradual progression to chronic renal failure

Nephrotic syndrome

16

What is nephrotic syndrome called in children?

minimal change disease

17

What is nephrotic syndrome called in adults?

membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

18

What Urinalysis finding is common in nephrotic syndrome?

Urine protein >3.5 g/day; EXTREMELY HIGH; lipiduria (oval fat bodies); fatty casts

19

This symptom in nephrotic syndrome is caused by lowered plasma albumin which lowers plasma oncotic pressure; this leads to increased reabsorption of sodium ions and water from the distal tubules

edema

20

This tubular disorder is caused by the damage to the renal tubular cells caused by ischemia (lack of blood flow) or exposure to toxic agents; variable prognosis depending on underlying cause

acute tubular necrosis

21

Common lab findings in acute tubular necrosis

low HGB and HCT; Urinalysis: renal tubular epi cells, renal tubular epi cell casts

22

This tubular disorder is classified as generalized failure of reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule; gluc, Na, K, HCO3, Phos, and amino acids not being reabsorbed normally; inherited or aquired

Fanconi's Syndrome

23

What are 2 common disorders causing Fanconi's Syndrome?

Cystinosis (accumulation of cystine in lysosomes) and Hartnup Disease (defect in absorption of certain amino acids from intestines or kidney)

24

Common lab findings in Fanconi's Syndrome

abnormal serum electrolytes, normal blood gluc; urinalysis: gluc (because PCT cannot reabsorb it) and cystine crystals