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Flashcards in Intro To Urinalysis Deck (50):
0

This substance indirectly stimulates the production of aldosterone

Renin

1

This substance causes absorption of Na from the lumen of the collecting duct

Aldosterone

2

ADH is produced by ______

Hypothalamus

3

This substance is responsible for making the collecting duct more permeable to passive water movement out of the lumen by inserting aquaporins

ADH

4

Urine is an ultrafiltrate of the _____

Plasma

5

The outer cortex of the kidney is the location of what 3 things?

Location of glomeruli (where filtration occurs), proximal convoluted tubules, and distal convoluted tubules

6

What is located inside the medulla?

Renal pyramid (loops of henle inside this) and sinus (with minor calyces that merge to form the major calyx)

7

Basic functional unit of the kidney

Nephron

8

Responsible for production of the filtrate; located at the proximal end of the proximal tubule

Glomerulus

9

The filtrate initially collects in _______ ______ due to hydrostatic differences between the lumen of the adder end arteriole and Bowman's space

Bowman's Space

10

After urine leaves the glomerulus it has approximately the same specific gravity as _______; this is known as _______

Plasma ; isothenuria

11

What is the specific gravity of plasma?

1.010

12

Significantly reduces the volume of water in the filtrate by reabsorbing approximately 2/3; Na, Cl, Glucose, and Amino Acids are absorbed from filtrate; removes unfiltered proteins or drugs out of blood; secretes H

Proximal convoluted tubule

13

This tissue surrounds the Loops of Henle in the medullary of the kidney; hypertonic to the filtrate

Medullary interstitium

14

In this area water moves out of the lumen, it is permeable to urea, and impermeable to Na and Cl

Descending limb of Loops of Henle

15

In this area Na and Cl are actively moved out of the lumen, it is impermeable to water, and permeable to urea

Ascending limb of the Loops of Henle

16

In the presence of aldosterone, Na is actively transported out of the lumen (water follows) in what area of the nephron?

Distal convoluted tubule

17

This determines the final concentration of urine

Collecting duct

18

JGA senses decreases in ____\______ ______ and releases renin which stimulates the production of angiotensin II which in turn stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone

Na\Blood Volume

19

Aldosterone actively increases _____ ______ from the lumen of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct and thus ______ pulls water out of the lumen. _______ is secreted into the lumen.

Na absorption; passively; potassium

20

_______ in the heart sense a drop in blood pressure, increase in plasma osmolality, and/or exposure to aldosterone

Baroreceptors

21

The ______ synthesizes ADH which is transported to the pituitary gland for storage before it is released into the bloodstream

hypothalamus

22

ADH causes changes in the epithelium of the _____ ______ _____ and _____ ______ that enhance the passive flow of water out of the lumen

distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct

23

Patient with decreased blood pressure will compensate by doing what?

Producing more aldosterone

24

List the three primary pigments found in urine

Urochrome, urobilin, and uroerythrin

25

this is the primary source of yellow coloration and is produced at a constant rate

Urochrome

26

this is an orange-brown colored pigment formed by the oxidation of urobilinogen; common in old urines

urobilin

27

this is a pink pigment that attaches to urates in the urine and gives amorphous urates a pinkish hue

uroerythrin

28

Yellow foam in urine is most commonly due to what?

bilirubin and drugs such as pyridium

29

this is a drug used to reduce discomfort in UTIs, causes very orange urine obscuring chemical testing

pyridium

30

What 3 things are reported on urine containing pyridium?

Color, clarity, and specific gravity (by refractometer)

31

Fresh and intact RBCs cause urine color to be what?

Pink--->Red

32

How does Hemoglobin and myoglobin appear in urine?

urine is clear, reagent strip positive for blood

33

_____ in the urine is often accompanied by a reddish plasma

hemoglobin

34

_______ in the urine is often accompanied by a clear plasma because it is cleared from the blood quicker

myoglobin

35

accumulation of uroporphyrin causing port wine colored urine, color may be red but the strip may read negative

porphyria cutanea tarda

36

accumulation of coproporphrinogen, red or colorless urine with fluorescence

lead poisoning

37

Brown, Dark Brown, or Black urine can be caused by what 3 things?

Melanuria (melanin in urine), Alkaptonuria (homogenistic acid), medications

38

Green or yellow/green urine is caused by what?

biliverdin (an oxidized form of bilirubin), bacterial infections (pseudomonas), or medications

39

What does normal urine clarity look like?

clear

40

List some non-pathogenic states of urine clarity

amorphous phosphates, carbonates, and urates precipitate out during refrigeration; squamous epithelial cells from an improper collection; improper storage allowing for excessive bacteria growth; contamination with sperm, talcum powder, vaginal creams, radiographic contrast, fat or chyle

41

List some pathologic states from cloudy urine

bacteria, yeast, fungi, red blood cells, white blood cells, trichomonas, fecal contamination

42

a ratio between the density of urine and the density of distilled water at the same temperature; a measure of the kidney's ability to maintain the body's water and chemical balance through reabsorption

specific gravity

43

Specific gravity measures the amount of ______ _______

dissolved solids

44

What is the chemical that is primarily responsible for urine coloration?

urochrome

45

Principle: ratio of the velocity of light through air is compared to the velocity of light through a solution

Refractometer

46

How do you correct the specific gravity in a refractometer for glucose?

for every gram of glucose/dL subtract 0.004

47

How do you correct the specific gravity in a refractometer for protein?

for every gram of protein/dL, subtract 0.003

48

How can the concentration of glucose and protein be determined?

by the reagent strip

49

Why does using centrifuged or uncentrifuged urine not affect the specific gravity when using a refractometer?

because we are measuring dissolved substances