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Flashcards in Seminal Fluid Analysis Deck (37):
0

This is the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse or the inability to carry pregnancy to term.

Infertility

1

These are located in the interstitium of the testes and are responsible for the production of testosterone

Leydig cells

2

This is the area between the seminiferous tubules; not part of the seminiferous tubules

Interstitium

3

These are the accessory glands that are responsible for approximately 70% of the ejaculate; contains high concentrations of flavin and fructose

Seminal Vesicles

4

The accessory gland that is responsible for approximately 25% of the ejaculate; contains acid phosphatase, proteolytic enzymes, and zinc

Prostate Gland

5

These secrete an alkaline mucous that serves to buffer the ejaculate to a slightly alkaline pH

Bulbourethral Glands

6

List the order for the travel route of sperm (SEVEn UP)

1 seminiferous tubules
2 epididymis
3 vans deferens
4 ejaculatory duct
5 urethra
6 penis

7

How would you collect seminal fluid?

collected through masturbation in a warm glass container, store at 37*C until testing begins, collect between 2-7 days of abstinence, label (name, period of abstinence, date, time of collection); testing should begin within 1 hour of collection

8

What is the normal appearance of seminal fluid?

viscous, translucent gray/white

9

What is an abnormal appearance of seminal fluid?

1 Whiter or more turbid=leukocytes
2 Red=expect RBCs
3 Yellow=urine, prolonged abstinence, certain medications

10

Describe normal viscosity of seminal fluid

semen immediately coagulates after ejaculation and within 30 minutes the coagulum will liquify

11

What types of viscosity are abnormal?

specimen isn't liquified by 60 minutes, clumps or agglutination persists due to antibodies, watery samples due to few/if any sperm, mucous threads form that are greater than 2cm

12

What is the normal volume for seminal fluid?

2-5 mL

13

What does a volume of seminal fluid less than 2 mL indicate?

blockage, infection, congenital absence of seminal vesicles, retrograde ejaculation, or loss of fluid

14

What is the normal pH for seminal fluid?

7.2-8.0, slightly alkaline to neutralize acidic environment of vagina

15

What does a high pH of seminal fluid indicate?

infections

16

What does a low pH of seminal fluid indicate?

a larger percentage of ejaculate volume is from the prostate gland or there are abnormalities in other sites

17

This is one of the most important factors for infertility testing, done on brightfield

motility

18

How do you examine motility?

prepare a wet mount and count percentage of sperm in each graded category (rapid progressive, moderately progressive, non-progressive, and immotile), a sperm moves by rotating its tail in a spiral motion

19

What is normal sperm motility?

> or equal to 50% in the two most motile groups if the specimen is evaluated within 60 minutes

20

How do you analyze sperm concentration?

dilute specimen, load hemacytometer, count 4 corner squares and red cell counting area, count both sides and average

21

What is the equation for concentration of sperm?

((avg # of sperm)/(l x w x d)) x dilution factor

22

What is a normal concentration for sperm?

20-250 million/mL, since sperm reported in mL and not microL you have to multiply by 1000

23

What are some reasons for low sperm concentration?

anatomical defects, short periods of abstinence, loss of first portion of ejaculate, and low or absent fructose

24

How do you calculate sperm count?

sperm concentration x volume of ejaculate

25

What is a normal sperm count?

> or equal to 40 million

26

When and why is a sperm count performed?

after postvasectomy, collected at monthly intervals beginning 2 months after surgery; must have 2 monthly specimens with no sperm; presence of motile sperm indicates unsuccessful procedure; macroscopic results should still be normal

27

How do you analyze morphology?

prepare slide and air dry, stain with wright's, giemsa, or papanicolaou; rate under oil immersion (1000x), count defective sperm and type of defect

28

What is a normal percentage of normal sperm morphology?

normal sperm morphology=12-15% or greater normal sperm

29

What percentage of normal sperm indicates a strong predictor of infertitily?

<5% normal sperm

30

What is the teratozoospermia index (TZI)?

number of defects divided by total number of abnormal sperm; should be less than or equal to 1.6, helpful in predicting sperm function

31

What would be the cause of abnormal morphology?

anatomical defects, physiological problems, infection, scrotal heating, and frequent ejaculations

32

What two stains are useful in examining vitality?

Blom's Stain or eosin nigrosin will allow rapid differentiation between alive and dead sperm, where dead sperm take up stain and appear dark pink and live sperm do not take up stain and appear white

33

What is normal vitality?

> or equal to 50% or more alive in normal men

34

What does leukocytes in ejaculate indicate?

should be less than 1 million/microL of seminal fluid otherwise indicate infection or inflammation

35

What is measured in rape investigations?

look for motile sperm (24 hrs) or immotile sperm (3 days), acid phosphatase measurement, and PSA

36

______ is the only body fluid with high concentration of acid phosphatase and can be measured in vaginal fluid or from skin or clothing.

semen