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Flashcards in Seminal Fluid Analysis Deck (37):

This is the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse or the inability to carry pregnancy to term.



These are located in the interstitium of the testes and are responsible for the production of testosterone

Leydig cells


This is the area between the seminiferous tubules; not part of the seminiferous tubules



These are the accessory glands that are responsible for approximately 70% of the ejaculate; contains high concentrations of flavin and fructose

Seminal Vesicles


The accessory gland that is responsible for approximately 25% of the ejaculate; contains acid phosphatase, proteolytic enzymes, and zinc

Prostate Gland


These secrete an alkaline mucous that serves to buffer the ejaculate to a slightly alkaline pH

Bulbourethral Glands


List the order for the travel route of sperm (SEVEn UP)

1 seminiferous tubules
2 epididymis
3 vans deferens
4 ejaculatory duct
5 urethra
6 penis


How would you collect seminal fluid?

collected through masturbation in a warm glass container, store at 37*C until testing begins, collect between 2-7 days of abstinence, label (name, period of abstinence, date, time of collection); testing should begin within 1 hour of collection


What is the normal appearance of seminal fluid?

viscous, translucent gray/white


What is an abnormal appearance of seminal fluid?

1 Whiter or more turbid=leukocytes
2 Red=expect RBCs
3 Yellow=urine, prolonged abstinence, certain medications


Describe normal viscosity of seminal fluid

semen immediately coagulates after ejaculation and within 30 minutes the coagulum will liquify


What types of viscosity are abnormal?

specimen isn't liquified by 60 minutes, clumps or agglutination persists due to antibodies, watery samples due to few/if any sperm, mucous threads form that are greater than 2cm


What is the normal volume for seminal fluid?

2-5 mL


What does a volume of seminal fluid less than 2 mL indicate?

blockage, infection, congenital absence of seminal vesicles, retrograde ejaculation, or loss of fluid


What is the normal pH for seminal fluid?

7.2-8.0, slightly alkaline to neutralize acidic environment of vagina


What does a high pH of seminal fluid indicate?



What does a low pH of seminal fluid indicate?

a larger percentage of ejaculate volume is from the prostate gland or there are abnormalities in other sites


This is one of the most important factors for infertility testing, done on brightfield



How do you examine motility?

prepare a wet mount and count percentage of sperm in each graded category (rapid progressive, moderately progressive, non-progressive, and immotile), a sperm moves by rotating its tail in a spiral motion


What is normal sperm motility?

> or equal to 50% in the two most motile groups if the specimen is evaluated within 60 minutes


How do you analyze sperm concentration?

dilute specimen, load hemacytometer, count 4 corner squares and red cell counting area, count both sides and average


What is the equation for concentration of sperm?

((avg # of sperm)/(l x w x d)) x dilution factor


What is a normal concentration for sperm?

20-250 million/mL, since sperm reported in mL and not microL you have to multiply by 1000


What are some reasons for low sperm concentration?

anatomical defects, short periods of abstinence, loss of first portion of ejaculate, and low or absent fructose


How do you calculate sperm count?

sperm concentration x volume of ejaculate


What is a normal sperm count?

> or equal to 40 million


When and why is a sperm count performed?

after postvasectomy, collected at monthly intervals beginning 2 months after surgery; must have 2 monthly specimens with no sperm; presence of motile sperm indicates unsuccessful procedure; macroscopic results should still be normal


How do you analyze morphology?

prepare slide and air dry, stain with wright's, giemsa, or papanicolaou; rate under oil immersion (1000x), count defective sperm and type of defect


What is a normal percentage of normal sperm morphology?

normal sperm morphology=12-15% or greater normal sperm


What percentage of normal sperm indicates a strong predictor of infertitily?

<5% normal sperm


What is the teratozoospermia index (TZI)?

number of defects divided by total number of abnormal sperm; should be less than or equal to 1.6, helpful in predicting sperm function


What would be the cause of abnormal morphology?

anatomical defects, physiological problems, infection, scrotal heating, and frequent ejaculations


What two stains are useful in examining vitality?

Blom's Stain or eosin nigrosin will allow rapid differentiation between alive and dead sperm, where dead sperm take up stain and appear dark pink and live sperm do not take up stain and appear white


What is normal vitality?

> or equal to 50% or more alive in normal men


What does leukocytes in ejaculate indicate?

should be less than 1 million/microL of seminal fluid otherwise indicate infection or inflammation


What is measured in rape investigations?

look for motile sperm (24 hrs) or immotile sperm (3 days), acid phosphatase measurement, and PSA


______ is the only body fluid with high concentration of acid phosphatase and can be measured in vaginal fluid or from skin or clothing.