Repro Flashcards Preview

Board Prep > Repro > Flashcards

Flashcards in Repro Deck (11):

Direct vs Indirect inguinal hernias
-what PE finding will help you distinguish between the two
-relation to inferior epigastric artery

Both: pass through the superficial inguinal ring
-both produce a cough in the groin when a person coughs

Indirect: pass through deep inguinal ring too (lateral to inferior epigastric artery)
-covered by all 3 layers of spermatic fascia

Direct: does not pass through deep inguinal ring (medial to inferior epigastric artery)
-covered by only the external spermatic fascia

PE: have pt cough a 2nd time while compressing the deep inguinal ring
-if it prevents the hernia from descending -> must pass through deep inguinal ring -> indirect hernia


Failure of what to close causes an indirect inguinal hernia

Processes vaginalis -> persistent connection between abdominal cavity and inguinal canal
-associated with hydroceles


When do hCG levels decrease and why

2nd trimester -> placental progesterone can maintain pregnancy by then


What causes insulin resistance in pregnant mothers w/ no history of diabetes

Placental growth hormone
-has anti-insulin effects
-aids in placental maturation


What hormone is in charge of
-male external genitalia
-male internal genitalia
-female external genitalia
-female internal genitalia

- external genitalia: Dihydrotestosterone via leydig cells
- internal genitalia: testosterone via wolffian duct

- external genitalia: estriadiol via ovaries
- internal genitalia: paramesonephric duct


What drug inhibits 5alpha-reductase and can lead to abnml male external genitalia if used during pregnancy



What results in a a congenital hydrocele

Failure of obliteration of processes vaginalis


14 year old girl has never menstruated before
- 46 XY karyotype
-labs: elevated testosterone and LH
-PE: vagina but no uterus is palpable


Androgen insensitivity syndrome
- testosterone is produced but cannot bind to receptor
-internal genitalia and external genitalia need Testosterone and DHT to be produced -> ambiguous genitalia
- famle internal genitalia is not present due to nml AMG


When will the startle reflex (making aloud noise will startle the baby and cause them to extended and abduct their arms w/ fingers spread) disappear

1-2 months
3-6 months
8-10 months

3- 6 months


What do these become
-ureteric bud
- allantois
- mesonephric duct

Ureteric bud: induces development of metanephros -> kidney

Allantois: urinary bladder (urachus -> median umbilical ligament)

Mesonephric duct: internal male genitalia


What hormone stimulates release of testosterone from leydig cells