Flashcards in Repro - Anatomy (Male Reproductive Anatomy) Deck (17)
What is the pathway that semen takes during ejaculation?
Seminiferous tubules --> Epididymis --> Vas deferens --> Ejaculatory ducts --> (Nothing) --> Urethra --> Penis; Think: "SEVEN UP"
Draw a sagittal view of the male reproductive system, labeling the following: (1) Scrotum (2) Testis (3) Glans (4) Prepuce (5) Epididymis (6) Urethra (7) Symphysis pubis (8) Vas deferens (9) Bladder (10) Ureter (11) Seminal vesicle (12) Prostate (13) Ejaculatory duct (14) Cowper (bulbourethral) gland.
See p. 564 in First Aid 2014 or p. 516 in First Aid 2013 for image on left
Draw a sagittal view of the testis, labeling the following: (1) Septa (2) Seminiferous tubules (3) Tunica albuginea (4) Tail of epididymis (5) Vas deferens (6) Rete testis (7) Head of epididymis.
See p. 564 in First Aid 2014 or p. 516 in First Aid 2013 for image on right
What are the main stages of the male sexual response? What nervous system and specific nerve mediate each?
(1) Erection - Parasympathetic nervous system (pelvic nerve) (2) Emission - Sympathetic nervous system (hypogastric nerve) (3) Ejaculation - visceral and somatic nerves (pudendal nerve); Think: "Point and Shoot (for erection Parasympathetic and emission Sympathetic)
What factor promotes the erection stage of male sexual response? More specifically, what effects does this factor have?
NO --> increased cGMP --> smooth muscle relaxation --> vasodilation --> proerectile
What factor works against the erection stage of male sexual response? More specifically, what effects does this factor have?
NE --> increased intracellular [Ca2+] --> smooth muscle contraction --> vasoconstriction --> antierectile
What mechanism does Sildenafil have? What other drug shares this mechanism?
Sildenafil and vardenafil inhibit cGMP breakdown (having a proerectile effect)
What are the names of important cells found in the seminiferous tubules? What kind of cell is each?
(1) Spermatogonia (germ cells) (2) Sertoli cells (non-germ cells) (3) Leydig cells (endocrine cells)
What is the function of spermatogonia? Where are they found?
Maintain germ pool and produce primary spermatocytes; Line seminiferous tubules
What are 8 functions of Sertoli cells?
(1) Secrete inhibin --> inhibit FSH (2) Secrete androgen-binding protein --> maintain local levels of testosterone (3) Convert testosterone and androstenedione to estrogen via aromatase (4) Tight junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells form blood-testis barrier --> isolate gametes from autoimmune attack (5) Support and nourish developing spermatozoa (6) Regulate spermatogenesis (7) Produce MIF (8) Temperature sensitive (decrease sperm production and decrease inhibin with temperature); Think: "Sertoli cells Support Sperm Synthesis"
Where are Sertoli cells found?
Line seminiferous tubules
With what 2 conditions is a rise in temperature associated? Which cells in the seminiferous tubules are relevant to this phenomenon, and why?
Increased temperature seen in varicocele, cryptorchidism; Sertoli cells - Temperature sensitive (decrease sperm production and decrease inhibin with temperature)
What major function do Leydig cells have? Where are they found?
Secrete testosterone (testosterone production unaffected by temperature); Interstitium
How does temperature affect Sertoli versus Leydig cells?
Sertoli: Temperature sensitive (decrease sperm production and inhibin with increased temperature); Leydig: Testosterone production unaffected by temperature
Which function does aromatase serve? What are cell types in the seminiferous tubules that contain aromatase?
Convert testosterone and androstenedione to estrogen via aromatase; Sertoli and Leydig cells contain aromatase
Create a schematic of a seminferous tubule, drawing and labeling the following: (1) Spermatogonium (2) Tight junction (3) Primary spermatocyte (4) Secondary spermatocyte (5) Spermatids (6) Sertoli cells (7) Spermatozoan (8) Lumen of seminiferous tubule.
See Pg. 566 in First Aid 2014 or Pg. 517 in First Aid 2013 for visual on left