Repro - Pathology (Breast Pathology) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Repro - Pathology (Breast Pathology) Deck (60):
1

Draw an image depicting the layered structures of the breast, labeling the following: (1) Nipple (2) Lactiferous sinus (3) Major duct (4) Terminal duct (5) Lobules (6) Stroma.

See p. 584 in First Aid 2014 or Pg. 533 in First Aid 2013 for visual

2

What are 2 diseases/conditions that affect the nipple?

(1) Paget disease (2) Breast abscess

3

What are 2 diseases/conditions that affect the lactiferous sinus?

(1) Intraductal papilloma (2) Abscess/mastitis

4

What are 3 diseases/conditions that affect the major duct?

(1) Fibrocystic change (2) DCIS (3) Invasive ductal carcinoma

5

What is a disease/condition that affects the terminal duct?

Tubular carcinoma

6

What is a disease/condition that affects the lobules?

Lobular carcinoma

7

What are 2 diseases/conditions that affect the stroma?

(1) Fibroadenoma (2) Phyllodes tumor

8

Name 3 benign breast tumors.

(1) Fibroadenoma (2) Intraductal papilloma (3) Phyllodes tumor

9

What are the characteristics of a fibroadenoma of the breast?

Small, mobile, firm mass with sharp edges

10

What are the characteristics of an intraductal papilloma of the breast?

Small tumor that grows in lactiferous ducts. Typically beneath areola.

11

What are the characteristics of a phyllodes tumor of the breast?

Large bulky mass of connective tissue and cysts. "Leaf-like" projections.

12

What is the difference between a breast fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor in terms of size?

Fibroadenoma - SMALL, mobile, firm mass with sharp edges; Phyllodes tumor - LARGE bulky mass of connective tissue and cysts. "Leaf-like" projections.

13

What age group is most commonly affected by fibroadenoma of the breast?

Most common tumor in those < 35 years old

14

What age group is most commonly affected by phyllodes tumor of the breast?

Most common in 6th decade

15

How does breast fibroadenoma relate to breast cancer?

Not a precursor to breast cancer

16

What effect does increased estrogen have on breast fibroadenomas?

Increase size and tenderness with increased estrogen (e.g., pregnancy, prior to menstruation)

17

How does intraductal papilloma relate to breast cancer?

Slight (1.5-2x) increased in risk for carcinoma.

18

What finding upon patient history or physical exam is associated with intraductal papilloma?

Serous or bloody nipple discharge.

19

How does phyllodes tumor relate to breast cancer?

Some may become malignant.

20

In what patient population are malignant breast tumors commonly found?

Commonly postmenopausal.

21

From where do malignant breast tumors usually arise?

Usually arise from terminal duct lobular unit.

22

Overexpression of which receptors are common in malignant breast tumors?

Ovexpression of estrogen/progesterone receptors or c-erbB2 (HER-2, an EGF receptor) is common

23

What is the more aggressive type of malignant breast tumors?

Triple negative (ER -, PR -, and Her2/Neu -) more aggressive

24

What impact does the type of malignant breast have?

Type affects therapy and prognosis

25

What is the single most important prognostic factor for malignant breast tumors?

Axillary lymph node involvement indicating metastasis is the single most important prognostic factor

26

Where are malignant breast tumors most often located?

Most often located in upper-outer quadrant of breast

27

What are 6 risk factors for malignant breast tumors?

Risk factors: (1) Increased estrogen exposure (2) Increased total number of menstrual cycles (3) Older age at 1st live birth (4) Obesity (increased estrogen exposure as adipose tissue converts androstenedione to estrone) (5) BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations (6) African American ethnicity (increased risk for triple negative breast cancer)

28

What are the two main categories of malignant breast tumors? What are the specific types of breast tumors within each category?

(1) Noninvasive - Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), Comedocarcinoma (subtype of DCIS), Paget disease (2) Invasive - Invasive ductal, Invasive lobular, Medullary, Inflammatory

29

What are characteristics that distinguish DCIS? More specifically, where is it located, from where does it arise, and how is it detected?

Fills ductal lumen. Arises from ductal atypia Often seen early as microcalcifications on mammography.

30

What is a common subtype of DCIS? What distinguishes it on histology?

Comedocarcinoma; Ductal, caseous (central) necrosis

31

From what does Paget's disease result? How does it present in clinic and on histology? What does such a presentation suggest?

Results from underlying DCIS; Eczematous patches on nipple; Paget cells = large cells in epidermis with clear halo; Suggests underlying DCIS

32

Besides the breast, where else can Paget's disease be seen? What relevance does this finding have to underlying malignancy?

Also seen on vulva, though does not suggest underlying malignancy

33

What are the histological and gross characteristics of invasive ductal carcinoma?

Firm, fibrous, "rock-hard" mass with sharp margins and small, glandular, duct-like cells. Grossly, see classic "stellate" infiltration.

34

What is the most common tumor of all breast cancers? For what else is it known?

Invasive ductal carcinoma; Most common (75% of all breast cancers); Worst and most invasive

35

What histological finding characterizes invasive lobular carcinoma?

Orderly row of cells ("Indian file")

36

In what way do invasive lobular carcinoma lesions typically form?

Often bilateral with multiple lesions in the same location

37

What clinical/histological finding distinguishes invasive medullary carcinoma of the breast?

Fleshly, cellular, lymphocytic infiltrate

38

What kind of prognosis does invasive medullary breast cancer have?

Good prognosis.

39

What is invaded in invasive inflammatory breast cancer?

Dermal lymphatic invasion by breast carcinoma.

40

What is the clinical finding associated with inflammatory breast cancer? What is the mechanism behind this?

Peau d'orange (breast skin resembles orange peel); neoplastic cells block lymphatic drainage.

41

What is the survival like for inflammatory breast cancer?

50% survival for 5 years

42

What is the most common cause of "breast lumps" from age 25 to menopause?

Proliferative breast disease

43

How does proliferative breast disease present?

Presents with premenstrual breast pain and multiple lesions, often bilateral

44

Describe the size of the mass seen in proliferative breast disease.

Fluctuation in size of mass.

45

Does proliferative breast disease indicate an increased risk of carcinoma?

Usually does not indicate increased risk of carcinoma

46

What are the histological types of proliferative breast disease? What are the defining histological characteristics of each?

Histologic types: (1) Fibrosis - hyperplasia of breast stroma (2) Cystic - fluid filled, blue dome (3) Sclerosing adenosis - increased acini and intralobular fibrosis (4) Epithelial hyperplasia - increase in number of epithelial cell layers in terminal duct lobule

47

Which histologic type of proliferative breast disease is associated with ductal dilation?

Cystic

48

Which histologic type of proliferative breast disease is often confused with cancer? What is the increased risk of developing cancer with this condition?

Sclerosing adenosis - Often confused with cancer. Increased risk (1.5-2X) of developing cancer

49

In what age group does the epithelial hyperplasia type of proliferative breast disease occur?

Occurs in women > 30 years old

50

What increased risk does the epithelial hyperplasia type of proliferative breast disease cause?

Increased risk of carcinoma with atypical cells

51

Which histologic type of proliferative breast disease is associated with calcifications?

Sclerosing adenosis

52

How can acute mastitis present? What increases the risk for the condition? What is the most common pathogen?

Breast abscess; during breast-feeding, increased risk of bacterial infection through cracks in the nipple; S. aureus is the most common pathogen

53

How is acute mastitis treated?

Treat with dicloxacillin and continue breast-feeding.

54

What is the physical finding of fat necrosis? What causes it?

A benign, usually painless lump; Forms as a result of injury to breast tissue

55

What is seen on mammography and biopsy in patients with fat necrosis?

Abnormal calcification on mammography; Biopsy shows necrotic fat, giant cells

56

What is important to consider when taking a patient's history when you are considering fat necrosis on your differential diagnosis?

Up to 50% of patients may not report trauma

57

In what patient population does gynecomastia occur?

Occurs in males.

58

From what 3 categories of things can gynecomastia result?

Results from (1) hyperestrogenism (2) Klinefelter (3) Drugs

59

What are examples of conditions causing gynecomastia due to hyperestrogenism?

Hyperestrogenism (cirrhosis, testicular tumor, puberty, old age)

60

What are examples of drugs that can cause gynecomastia?

Drugs (Spironolactone, marijuana [Dope], Digitalis, Estrogen, Cimetidine, Alcohol, Heroin, Dopamine, D2 antagonists, Ketoconazole); Think: "Some DOPE Drugs Easily Create Awkward Hairy DD Knockers"