Reproduction Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Reproduction Physiology Deck (65)
1

*** What is asexual reproduction?

ONE cell becomes 2 (no genetic variability)
- fission (prokaryotes, eukaryotes, bacteria...)
- no ploidy
- budding (yeast)
- vegetative reproduction (bulbs, tubers, dalias)
- spore formation..

2

*** What is sexual reproduction?

- EGG + SPERM becomes embryo (GENETIC VARIABILITY)

3

*** Why do we need genetic variability?

- ADAPTABILITY
- development (NEW SPECIES); micro= resistant species
- genetic repair (SURVIVAL)

4

What are the reproductive functions of the male?

- SPERMATOGENESIS
- performance of the MALE SEXUAL ACT
- hormonal regulation

5

What are the anatomical structures? (don't worry about all of these)

- penis
- scrotum
- testis
- epididymis (seminiferous tubules, vas deferens, ampulla of vas, prostate).
- seminal vesiciles
- ejaculatory duct
- prostate
- inteernal urethra
- prostatic ducts
- urethra
- urethral glands
- bulbuourethral glands

6

*** What can happen to the prepuce/foreskin?

- infection
- PHIMOSIS
- must be kept clean

7

*** What is Paraphemosis?

- urologic emergency in which the retracted foreskin of an uncircumcised male cannot be returned to its normal anatomic position.
- can lead to NECROSIS and amputation.

8

Is it easy to interrupt the blood flow (ischemia) to the testis?

YES (torsion...)

9

What is the CREMASTERIC REFLEX?

- rising of the testis with stroking of the inner thigh
*tests for TESTICULAR TORSION if it does not rise.

10

Can you damage the urethra or damage reproductive function when placing a foley catheter?

YES

11

How do you exam the prostate and seminal vesicles?

rectal exam

12

What happens during spermatogenesis?

lose their cytoplasm

13

What sits on top of the testis?

- epididymis (6 meters long)= where spermatids mature.

14

When does spermatogenesis begin?

- in the embryo
- primordial germ cells, migrate to testis, become spermatogonia in the seminiferous tubules.

15

When does MITOTIC division begin for spermatogenesis?

- PUBERY

16

What happens during meiosis?

- formation of 23 chromosomes

17

What happens during spermatogenesis?

- 1 spermatogonium forms 4 spermatozoa (23 chromosomes).

18

What should we also look for in the case of testicular torsion?

- really uneven heights of testicles

19

How long does spermatogenesis occur?

- from puberty until old age

20

What stimulates spermatogenesis?

- ANTERIOR PITUITARY gonadotropic hormones released during puberty.

21

**** What is the hormonal control of spermatogenesis?

- FSH from anterior pituitary stimulates the SERTOLI cells
- LH stimulates LEYDIG cells to secrete TESTOSTERONE.
- GH promotes DIVISION of SPERMATOGONIA.

22

** What happens as the spermatogonia migrate?

- they go into the SERTOLI CELL LAYER (surround the spermatogonia)

23

What is the progression of spermatogenesis?

- spermatogonium to a primary spermatocyte to a secondary spermatocyte to spermatids to spermatozoa

24

**** What is the duration for spermatogenesis?

74 days

25

What is the anatomy of the sperm?

- acrosome surrounds head
- mitochondria found in the body (between neck and tail)

26

What is the anatomy of the sperm?

- acrosome surrounds head
- mitochondria found in the body (between neck and tail)

27

What is Kartagener's syndrome?

- ciliopathic, autosomal recessive genetic disorder that causes defects in the action of cilia lining the respiratory tract

28

What does a mature sperm have that allows it to fertilize an oovum?

- Hyalouronidase (allows the sperm to get through the zona pellucidum)
- proteoytic enzymes
- flagellum

29

What is the normal velocity of sperm?

1-4 mm/min

30

What does testosterone do?

enhances growth and division of germinal cells in testes

31

What does LH do?

stimulates leydig cells, which secrete testosterone.

32

What does FSH do? (SEE SLIDE)

- stimulates SERTOLI cells= conversion of spermatids to sperm, production of estrogen from testosterone, and growth hormone, which stimulates metabolism and spermatogonial proliferation.

33

*** What happens as the sperm mature?

travel from seminiferous tubules to the epididymis. During this time they are NON MOTILE!!!

34

When do sperm become motile?

in the EPIDIDYMIS over the next 18-24 hours.
*they are inhibited by inhibitory proteins until ejaculation.

35

How many sperm are formed daily?

120 million

36

What is found in the ejaculate?

- testosterone
- estrogens
- enzymes
- nutrients

37

What enhances sperm movement?

- alkaline or neutral pH environment

38

Can acidic environment cause sperm death?

YES

39

What can increased temperature due to sperm?

increases sperm activity, but can cause death due to increased metabolism.
*so tell guys to wear looser boxer shorts to enhance sperm production.

40

**** How long can sperm last in the female genital tract?

2 days

41

What do the prostate and seminal vesicles secrete in the ejaculate?

- prostate= prostaglandins (aid in fertilization and react with cervical mucus enhancing sperm movement. Also causes reverse peristalsis in the female tract), calcium (for movement), citrate, phosphate, clotting enzyme, profibrinolysin, acid phosphatase (alkaline).
- seminal vesicles= fructose, citric acid, nutrients, fibrinogen

42

What is semen?

fluid + sperm
*10% from vas deferens, 60% from SEMINAL VESICLES, 30% from PROSTATE, and trace from Cowper's Gland.

43

What is the function of sperm coagulum?

holds secretions in place and then dissolves in about 30 mins.

44

Can sperm be frozen to -100 C and preserved for years?

YES

45

What is capacitation of spermatozoa?

- protein moiety falls off. Separation of cholesterol from the sperm acrosome. Acrosomal increase in CALCIUM PERMEABILITY. Increased motion of sperm flagellum. Enzyme release from acrosome to begin fertilization/ACROSOMAL REACTION.

46

Where do the sperm attach?

GRANULOSA CELL LAYER

47

What does the sperm release when it binds to the zoa PELLUCIDA?

HYALURONIDASE and proteolytic enzyme released

48

What is the ZONA PELLUCIDA REACTION?

locks out binding of additional sperm

49

**** What is the summarized process of fertilization?

1. Capacitation
2. acrosomal reaction
3. penetration of granulosa layer
4. ZONA pellucida reaction (calcium release from granules block new sperm
5. ferilization

50

What diseases affect the seminiferous tubules?

- MUMPS, excessive temp

51

What is cryptorchidism?

0 failure of testicle to descend
* testes normally descend about 2-3 monts before parturition (birth).

52

What can failure of the testicle to descend lead to?

- sterility
- neoplasms

53

**** What is the normal volume of ejaculate? (TEST QUESTION)

3.5 mL (120 million sperm in 1.0 mL)

54

What amount of sperm is considered too low for fertility?

less than 20 million

55

*** What is required for male sexual act?

- neurology (anxiety, stress...)
- stumulation of glans penis (sexual sensatino)
- glans (PUDENDAL NERVE to SACRAL PLEXUS to SCARAL SPINAL CORD to BRAIN).
- bladder distension can cause erection.
- psychic stimuli
- nocturnal emissions

56

What back injury can cause sexual dysfunction?

inherent reflexes in sacral and lumbar spinal cord

57

What is required for penile erection?

- parasympathetics
- arteriolar vasodiliation
- venous outflow occlusion
- pressure in the corporae cavernosa

58

What causes ejaculation?

- SYMPATHETICS (T12-L2)
- ischocavernosa and bulbocavernosa contract

59

What secretes testosterone?

- INTERSTITIAL CELLS of LEYDIG.

60

Are Leydig cells present in newborn male infant?

YES for the first few months, but then go away until after puberty, where they produce more TESTOSTERONE.

61

Where are androgens also produced?

- adrenal glands

62

What is the importance of steroids?

- synthesized from cholesterol or acetyl coenzyme A and are precursors for hormones.
- bind to plasma albumin or beta globulin sex hormone binding globulin.

63

What metabolizes androgens?

- the liver. So if the liver is not metabolizing these hormones properly, the androgens will be around longer and can increase facial hair and secondary sex characteristics.

64

Where are androgens excreted?

- in the bile from the liver and urine from the kidneys.

65

What are the effects of testosterone?

- body hair distribution (face, axillae, torso, and pubic).
- voice change
- skin thickness
- acne
- muscle mass increase
- increased bone matrix (calcium retention)
- increased metabolism
- increased RBC mass
- increased water and sodium retention
- increased protein synthesis