Flashcards in Reproductive Stuff Deck (32):
What accessory glands contribute to semen?
seminal vesicle, prostate gland, bulourethral gland
What is the name of the tube that leads from the testis to the uretha?
What are the parts of the testis?
Seminiferous tubule, epididymis, vas deferens
what lies between the seminiferous tubules?
What is the site of sperm production?
What is the function of sertoli cells?
they regulate sperm development
What do sertoli cells secrete?
Inhibin, and ABP
What is the function of ABP?
Bind to terosterone so it cannot difuse out of the tubule lumen
What is the function of leydig cells?
Describe the endocrine control of reproductive function.
1: Hypothalmic GNRH promotes release of LH and FSH from Anterior Pituitary
2: FSH Targets Sertoli Cells, stimulates release of paracrine molecules needed from spermatogonia
3: Lh targets leydigs cells and causes the release of testosterone.
4: Testosterone inhibits the release of LH and GNRH
What is each primary oocyte surrounded by?
Which type of follicle has a theca layer?
What are the 3 phases of the ovarian cycle?
Follicular, Ovulation, Luteal
What are the 3 phases of the uterine cycle?
Menses, Proliferative phase, Secretory Phase
What are the hormones that control the female reproductive phases?
GNRH, FSH, LH, Estrogen, Progesteron, Inhibin, and AMH
Describe the events of the early follicular phase
1: Gonadotropin release increases
2: FSH pressures follicles to gro
3: Granulosa Cell pressured by FSH produce steroid hormones
4: Thecal Cells Pressured by LH produce steroid hormones
5: Granulosa cells secrete AMH
6: Thecal cells release paracrine androgens
7: armotase in cells converts androgen to estrogen
What is the function of AMH?
Decrease the sensitivity of other follicles to FSH. This helps inhibit their development.
What is the function of estrogen in the early follicular phase?
Exerts a Negative feedback on pituitary FSH, and LH. This prevents follicles from developing. Also is a positive feed back on estrogen production from granulosa cells.
What is the importance of the positive feedback of estrogen on granulosa cells?
Allows the follicles to continue to produce estrogen, without FSH and LH.
Describe the Events of Late Follicular Phase?
1: Granulosa Cells secrete inhibin, progesterone, and estrogen.
2:Estrogen with Progesterone causes positive feedback on GNRH instead of negative feedback.
3:LH surges because of positive feedback
4: Ovulation Occurs 16-24 hours later
What is the importance of the LH surge?
Signals the production of chemicals in the follicile that continue maturation to its final state.
Describe the Events of Early Luteal Phase
1:Thecal and Granulosa cells mingle and become luteal cells of corpus luteum
2: Corpus Luteum produces increasing amounts of estrogen, progesterone, and inhibin.
3: The combination of estrogen, and progesterone cause a negative feedback on GNRH.
Describe the Events of Late Luteal Phase
1: Luteal Cells degenerate, estrogen, and progesterone production lowers
2: This fall removes the negative feedback on GNRH.
3: Menstruation begins around 2 weeks after the Corpus Luteum dies.
What are the 3 phases of the uterin cycle, and what are the hormone levels at each?
Proliferative Phase- E-High P=Medium
Secretory Phase- E= medium P=High
What saves the corpus luteum from dying after implantation?
What is HCG made by?
Made by trophoblast
Describe the two parts of a Blastocyte and what do they turn into?
Mass of Cells- Embryo
What are the two sources of positive feedback of oxytocin during labor?
Pressure on the cervix by the baby, and uterin smooth muscle contraction.
What other signal, beside oxytocin, helps labor start?
What are the effects of CRH?
Cause progesterone to fall, which removes its promotion of relaxation.
What is milk production stimulated by?