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Flashcards in Reproductive System- Processes Deck (48)
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Name the hormones that the ovaries produce

Estrogen and Progesterone


What is the function of estrogen?

Significant in the production of eggs and the menstrual cycle. It is also responsible for secondary sex characteristics. These characteristics include enlarged breasts, widening of the pelvis, and a curvier figure as a result of fat deposits in the breast, hips, and buttocks.


What does progesterone do?

It is necessary for the maintenance of pregnancy, but does not promote secondary sexual characteristics.


What is the structure of the female breast?

it contains one to two dozen lobules, each with its own mammary duct which begins at the nipple and divides into numerous other ducts ending in blind sacs called alveoli. In a non-lactating breast, the ducts far outnumber the alveoli since alveoli are made up of cells that can produce milk.


Is milk produced during pregnancy?

No it is not because the the hormone prolactin neededed for milk production is suppressed by estrogen and progesterone.


When does milk production begin? What do the breasts produce prior to this ?

A few days after delivery, milk production begins prior to which the breasts produce a watery, yellowish-white fluid called colostrum, which has a similar composition to milk but contains more protein and less fat.


What do the breasts produce prior to milk production after pregnancy?

Colustrum is a watery, yellowish-white fluid which has a similar composition to milk but contains more protein and less fat.


When does pregnancy begin?

Pregnancy begins with fertilization of an egg by a sperm forming a zygote.


How long are sperm viable for after ejaculation ?
How long can an egg survive after ovulation ?

Sperm are viable for 3-5 days after ejaculation, depending on the environment, and an egg can survive for up to 24 hours after ovulation.


Based on sperm and egg viability after ejaculation and ovulation, respectively, when must copulation take place in order for fertilization to occur?

This means copulation must take place by one day after ovulation and can occur as early as two days before ovulation for fertilization to take place.


Where does fertilization typically occur?

In the oviducts/fallopian tubes/uterine tubes.


How does an egg in the fallopian tube attract sperm ?

The egg releases chemicals that attract the sperm


What action does the sperm take upon reaching the egg?

When sperm reach the egg they release enzymes that break apart the corona radiate, follicle cells surrounding the egg. Once this is accomplished, more sperm release acrosomal enzymes that make a hole in the membrane of the egg, allowing the sperm to combine with the egg. When this union of egg and sperm occurs, the membrane of the egg changes chemically, preventing other sperm from penetrating the egg.


Describe what happens after fertilization as the zygote travels to the uterus?

Frequent mitotic divisions occur on its way to the uterus.
The zygote spends about three to four days undergoing mitosis in the oviducts forming the morula and another three to four days undergoing mitosis while unattached in the uterus, forming the blastocyst as the endometrium prepares for implantation


Why does the endometrium increase its blood supply and secrete glycogen during the menstrual cycle? What hormone causes this to occur?

To prepare for the implantation of the blastocyst and to sustain the blastocyst before it implants in the endometrium. Progesterone release from the corpus luteum causes this.


Human Chorionic Gonadotropin - what is it ?

A hormone that is secreted by the blastocyst to stimulate the corpus luteum to secrete progesterone.


How many days after fertiization does the blastocyst implant into the endometrium ?

The blastocyst implants into the endometrium of the uterus on day 7 at which time it begins to develop three layers: the ectoderm, the mesoderm, and the endoderm.


What is the largest human cell in the body and the smallest ?

The largest is the female egg and the smallest is the male sperm.