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Flashcards in Research 4 Deck (51):

What happens after the literature review?

Research question


What dirrects all subsequents actions?

Research question.


What is the research topic?

It is the gap that you wish to fill from what you knkw and from what you do not know.


The clinical experience contributes to the research...

Because you see that something helped someone, or that it did not, or that something happened that you did not expect, something happened that sparked the idea in your brain, "hey, I do not know what happened here" and so you set out to investigate that. You will do a lit review and see what you can answer and the rest is the area that we do not know, and so we will be able to go and know how to arrange our study to actually answer this one question that we do not know.


The research question needs to be....

Important, we are not here for fantasy issues,

Answerable, if it cannot be answered then isn't it already answered?

Feasible, can you actually perform this study, do you have the resources, the funds, people, the skills, and all else that will make a research study to take place.


target population

Who is the study being conducted on, who do we wish to know more about.

If we wish to know about 6 feet tall women, will we conduct the study on 6 feet tall men?


research rationale

Why are you doing this study?

The lit review will help to answer this question, that there is something missing that is useful and answerable that we wish to pursue.



What you are going to study now.


independent (predictor)

The general category of the interventions that you will go and do


The levels of the variables

The specifics of the variable.

The MHP and Parafin are our levels of our variables


How many levels are present at the dependent ?

One, it is the outcome, what happens.

We can expect either one of two things to happen, but what actually does happen is really only one thig.

Heads or tails may happen, but a head or a tail will happen.


Operational Definitions•

What the item or procedure is that is being made used of.

A dictionary denition.


Operational Definitions

What you explain personaly what is the parameters that you will


evaluate measuring instruments

Methologocial studies


describe populations/clinical phenomena



explore relationships



comparisons between groups




We think what will happen


Do we prove our hypothesis?

Never, we aim to show refernce to or against.


Can we change the hypothesis?

Never, becausew e cannot say that now that we have our data we will have changed what we did think.

Ha ha ha. Lol.


null or the statistical hypothesis.

This is the point that you always assume it to be true, because you have not shownany evidence to say otherwise.
You do not need to write this in the paper.
You are basing your hypothesis on what has already been done, and other people
will also have read the same material, so both you and the audience will have the
same null hypothesis.


So you can see if the null hypothesis is still standing up to the test of time, so then this will be our hypothesis,

But if we are not testing the null hypothesis then we will need to see if we suspect that the people that we are studying to tuen out better or to turn out worse than the control population.



Abstract is _______ words long.



The abstract has_________.

Inlcudes all the rest but it is really one or two sentences by each topic. For history, rationale, methods, for results, for discussion.



The proposal, why we want to do this study, and how we willcollect the data



Methods will describe the subjects that we want in the study, the exclusion criteria will describe those that do not want.
You want enough people to get a signifiicant result. This can be calculated.
Recruitment is very hard, and it will be required to know how many we need to actually be able toget the people that we need.
Who are the people in the studies.
How are they going to be assigned to the groups



Just the results, little narrative, there are graphs.



Description of the results, relating back to the purpose of the study, alot of times we go back to thefundation of the study. And what it can mean to the clinician.


conclusion • references



substantial evidence = effective treatment =improved patient care




That we really did hit the mark, not the how often, that is the reliability aspect, but if we actually hit the correct mark.

So if we do then the following questions should be well answered.

How valid or true are the inferences or
study conclusions for the study participants?
How valid or true are the inferences derived from the study population relative to other, broader populations?
To what extent can we generalize the results of this study to other populations of
individuals beyond the study population?

Because we actually understood the matter properly by actually going and getting the proper data, so then not only did we understand the sample population, but we can apply it to a broader population, and from there to an even broader population.


concerns about generalizability are secondary to concerns about validity!


First know that the research is able to be correct for the people that it actualy did have a study on, and if you could also generalize, good, if not, okay.


Internal validity

Did anything else go and cause the outcomes that we have observed.


statistical power

The ability to reject the null hypothesis, so a low statistical power is what we would like, to not reject our original hypothesis


You want low varience



internal validity
• history
Other events

Are they doing anything else between the treatments, if so so how do you know that it was your treatments that made it better, ir if they got worse, how do you that it
was not due to the other activities. So if they are doing
something else during the experiment, so you need to
control for this, to make sure that it is indeed your
independant variable that did cause the change.


• maturation time

Is there changes that happen to
people just due to time, they heal
better, they change.
People will respond sifferently, maybebecause they are stronger or older,
anything that the passing of time can
atrribute to.


Experimental mortality

People can die, people can move, people can
withdraw at anytime that they want.
You might be able to keep the data of the people who dropped out.


Testing and retest affects.

The very fact that you went to get their baseline might be enough to cause a change to the dependent variable.

So is it due to the intervention alone or is it due to the pretest as well.

Well, maybe we can say that it is at least due to the intervention after a pretest.


instrumentation relibility

You do not know if your instruments are actually getting what you want.


statistical regression

reliability of test

The more and more that you give a test the more reliable that it will get. This has to do with thequestionarre and the surveys.



groups have different experiences

You want to make sure that the people are as similaras possible.


shared information diffuses treatment effect

Sometimes the effect of the independant variable os not meant to be biven over from one
group to anither, so that there will be blinding, so that they will not know, always, what theyare getting, so that they will not go and just do what they think will happen.


compensatory services to control group

When you provide some sort of compensatory treatment to the control group, only because they are not getting the experimental treatment. And now they know that they are the control group, so they know that they are not getting the treatment, so they will work different.



When they know that they are not getting treat they will be overcompensating


group resentful secondary to treatment

If they know that they are not getting the treatment, they will not work as hard as they can.
But after the experiments, they have to be told, that they were not given the intervention.


random assignment and control groups

Randomization assignement takes care of so many of these issues.


blinding subjects/investigators

And blinding the subjects and the incestigators, will alsogo and fix this up.


non-compliance with protocol

How do you cntrol for people who are are non-compliant? How are you sure that they did the exercises?

Logg books, videos, different things that will help to make sure that they will keep to it.


interaction of treatment and setting

results in setting 1 does not equal results in setting 2


interaction of treatment and history

results in present does not results in past/future