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Flashcards in RESOURCE PHARM OTC Deck (20)
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1

When would you refer for a cold?

Ear ache that is severe

Vulnerable patient groups e.g. very young, very elderly, heart disease, lung disease, severe asthma

Fever and cough that is persistent

Chest pain

Shortness of breath that can’t be explained

2

When would you refer for a cough?

Longer than 3 weeks and not improving

Chest pain

Shortness of breath

Wheezing

Recurring cough present at night

Whooping cough/croup

Cough or wheezing that may be drug induced e.g. ace inhibitors and beta blockers

Yellow, green, brown or blood stained phlegm/sputum

Offensive or foul smelling phlegm/sputum

3

When would you refer for a sore throat?

Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing)

Longer than 7-10 days

Hoarseness persisting for more than three weeks

Sore throat with a skin rash

White spots, exudate or pus on the tonsils with a high temperature and swollen glands

Recurrent bouts of infection

Suspected adverse drug reaction e.g. carbimazole

Failed treatment

Breathing difficulties

4

When would you refer for ear wax?

Foreign body in the ear

Pain

Dizziness

Tinnitus

Treatment failure

5

When would you refer for a headache?

Headache associated with recent head injury/trauma

Children under 12

Associated with stiff neck, fever and or rash

Sudden onset and or severe pain

Suspected adverse drug reaction e.g. oral contraceptive pill

Associated with drowsiness, blackouts, unsteadiness, visual disturbances or vomiting

Recurring headaches
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6

When would you refer for constipation?

Blood in the stools

Pain on defecation

Suspected drug induced constipation e.g. opiates, antidepressants

With abdominal pain, vomiting or bloating
Weight loss

Failed treatment

Change in bowel habit of more than 2 weeks

7

When would you refer for diarrhoea?

Persistent change in bowel habit

Recent travel which was abroad

Presence of blood/mucus in the stools

Diarrhoea with severe vomiting and fever

Signs of dehydration e.g. dry mouth, drowsiness or confusion, passing little urine, sunken fontanelle and eyes

Longer than 3 days in older children and adults (longer than 1 day in babies under 1 years and 2 days in children under 3 years and elderly)

Suspected drug induced diarrhoea e.g. antibiotics

Severe abdominal pain

8

When would you refer for dyspepsia?

Unexplained weight loss

Suspected drug induced dyspepsia e.g. ferrous sulphate, NSAIDs

Persistent vomiting

Persistent symptoms (more than 5 days) or recurring

Black or tarry stools

Severe pain

Pain radiating to other areas of body e.g. arm

Symptoms developing for the first time in patients aged 45 years or over

Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing)

Failed treatment

9

When would you refer for haemorrhoids?

Blood in the stools

With abdominal pain or vomiting

Weight loss

Persistent change in bowel habit

Longer than 3 weeks

10

When would you refer mouth ulcers?

Lasting longer than 3 weeks

Suspected adverse drug reaction e.g. NSAIDS

Crops of 5-10 or more ulcers

Rash

Diarrhoea

With weight loss

Involvement with other mucous membranes

11

When would you refer for cystitis?

Diabetics

Immunocompromised patient

Pregnant

Men

Children

Elderly women

Vaginal discharge

Haematuria (presence of blood in the urine)

With fever, nausea and or vomiting

Pain or tenderness in the loin area

Recurrent cystitis

Failed treatment

Longer than 2 days

12

When would you refer for Primary dysmenorrhoea?

Abnormal vaginal discharge

Heavy or unexplained bleeding

Showing signs of systematic infection e.g. fever

Symptoms suggesting secondary dysmenorrhoea

13

When would you refer for vaginal thrush?

Diabetics

More than two attacks in the last six months

Failed OTC treatment

Pregnant

Vulval or vaginal sores ulcers or blisters

Vaginal discharge that is green-yellow or blood stained

Vaginal discharge that is foul smelling

Under 16 or over 60 years of age

No improvement within 7 days of treatment

Previous history of STD (sexually transmitted infection) or exposure to partner with STD

Abnormal or irregular vaginal bleeding

Any associated lower abdominal pain or dysuria

14

When would you refer for athlete's foot?

Not responded to the appropriate treatment

Nail involvement

Spreading to other parts of the foot

Diabetics

Signs of bacterial infection e.g. weeping, pus or yellow crusts

15

When would you refer for cold sores?

Longer than 2 weeks

Lesions inside the mouth

Eye is affected

Immunocompromised patients

Signs of secondary bacterial infection e.g. weeping, pus, yellow crust

Babies and children

Severe, widespread or worsening lesions

Painless lesion

16

When would you refer for warts and verrucas?

Anogenital warts

Facial warts

Diabetics

Immunocompromised patient

Bleeding or itching

Changed in size or colour

OTC treatment that has been unsuccessful following 3 months of treatment

17

What OTC meds should be avoided or used with caution in asthma?

Aspirin and NSAID

Cough suppressants e.g. codeine, pholcodine and dextromorphan

Head lice preparations containing alcohol

18

What OTC meds should be avoided or used with caution in those with prostate enlargement?

Those that may precipitate urinary retention:

Anticholinergics e.g. sedating antihistamines, Kwells and Buscopan

Decongestants e.g. phenylephrine

19

What OTC meds should be avoided or used with caution in glaucoma?

Anticholinergics e.g. sedating antihistamines, Kwells and Buscopan

Corticosteroids e.g. Beconase nasal spray

20

Name some OTC medicines that are prone to abuse

Opioid analgesics
Laxatives
Stimulants
Antihistamines
Cough/cold preparations e.g. Sudafed