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Flashcards in Resp Deck (40)
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1

State the order of the respiratory tract and its associated epithelia

 

  1. Bronchus - Ps C Go
  2. Lobar bronchi
  3. Segmental Bronchi
  4. Subsegmental Bronchi - Ps C Go
  5. Bronchioles - SC C Cl
  6. Terminal Bronchioles
  7. Alveolar ducts - SC C Cl
  8. Alveoli - Simple Squamous

 

Ps C Go - Pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells 

 

SC C Cl - Simple Cuboidal Ciliated with Clara Cells

2

What are 4 common flora of resp tract?

Viridans streptococci

Neisseria

Anaerobes

Candida Albicans

3

What are 3 uncommon flora of the resp tract

Strep pneumonia

Strep pyogenes

H influenzae

4

What would a CXR if sarcoidosis reveal?

Miliary and nodule shadowing and diffuse fibrosis

5

State the CXR of bronchopneumonia. What are the symptoms of bronchopneumonia?

Patchy consolidation. Not confined to lobes.

Aspiration of gastric contents, cardiac failure, COPD

6

What antibiotic would you give for:

a) community acquired pneumonia

b) hospital acquired pneumonia

a) penicillin

b) co-amoxiclav

7

What is saturated vapour pressure

equilibrium between water molecules entering and leaving the water

8

Define content of a liquid

content = solubility x tension

amount of gas dissolved in a liquid.

9

which ribs are true ribs? which are false? which are floating?

true = 1-7

flase = 8-12

floating = 11 and 12

10

describe the features of ribs 1 and 2

rib 1 - 1 articulating head. short and wide. grooves for subclavian arteries

rib 2 - rough area for serratus anterior attachment

11

state the intercostal muscles and what direction they run

external - inferior and anteriorly

innermost and internal - inferior and posteriorly

12

Define inspiratory capacity and give avg value

quiet expiration to maximal inspiration

3L

13

define serial, physiological and distributive dead space

physiological = distributive + serial

serial = airways

distributive = non airways

14

how does the lung get around laplace's law?

surface tension rises and surfactant less efficient with bigger alveoli therefore pressure is increased

15

What is resp distresss syndorme? how would you treat?

not enough surfactant produced in lungs of newborn

steroids

16

How is compliance measured?

volume change of lungs per unit of pressure change

17

What is helium dilution used for? explain process

used to measure residual volume

  1. helium insoluble in blood
  2. patient added to closed system
  3. change in helium concentration calculated and can be used to work out functional residual volume
  4. FRC = RV + ERV
  5. ERV calculated from spirometer

18

What is nitrogen washout used for? how does it work?

used to calculate serial deadspace

  1. patient takes in 100% oxygen
  2. patient breathes out through valve measuring nitrogen content
  3. middle of curve = dead space

19

How does Hb have a buffering capacity?

when not bound to oxygen can bind to H+ from co2 + h2o

H+ binds to water and breathed out in lungs

20

Whats the normal arterial and venous content of co2 per liter?

arterial - 22mmol

venous - 24mmol

21

Give 3 ways that type 1 resp failure can occur and examples

  1. thickening of alveolar membrane - fibrotic lung disease
  2. Decrease in alveolar SA - emphysema
  3. Increase in pleural fluid - pulmonary oedema

22

Give 3 ways type 2 resp failure acan occur and examples

  1. paralysis of resp muscles - MND
  2. Chest wall abnormalities - scoliosis
  3. Difficulty ventilating lungs - COPD / asthma

23

What are the symptoms of asthma?

breathlessnes, polyphonic wheeze, tight chest, dry cough

24

Symptoms of COPD?

cough and sputum, breathlessness

25

How would a COPD patient present?

cyanosis, barrel chest, wheezing, co2 retention

26

What causes lobar pneumonia?

strep pneumoniae

27

What happens in interstitial pneumonia?

progressive scarring of lungs

28

Give 2 organisms that cause acute community acquired pneumonia

s pneumoniae

h influenzae

29

Give 2 organsism that cuase acute hospital acquired pneumonia

MRSA

legionella pneumophilae

30

What symptoms are associated with pneumonia?

cough with sputum (purulent, or rusty)

Breathlessness

Fever

Pleuritic chest pain (pain worse on inspiration)