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Flashcards in Self study Extras Deck (33)
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1

How is phosphate reabsorbed? Where is it reabsorbed? What decreases its activity?

Reabsorbed in the PCT

Na-P symporter

Activity decreased by PTH

2

What is Bartteter's syndrome?

Hypokalaemia caused by NKCC transporter not working

3

How do ACE inhibitors cause hyperkalaemia?

ACE inhibitors prevent AG1 to AG2. AG2 stimulates aldosterone release which increases K+ secretion

4

What is conn's syndrome?

aldosterone producing adenoma. Results in hypokalaemia

5

What is liddle's syndrome?

hypertension, hypokalaemia, and metabolic alkalosis due to hyperconductivity of Na ion channels in the DCT

6

What are levator muscles? What can happen to them post childbirth?

Muscles which support the pelvic organs. 

Muscle strength reduced after childbirth leading to dropping of the bladder neck and urinary incontinence.

7

What part of the brain controls micturition?

pontine micturition centre

8

Give 3 signs of hypovolemia

sunken eyes, dry nose or mouth, longitudinal flurrows on tongue

9

Why can CKD cause anaemia? How can you treat this anaemia?

Damage to kidneys = less erythropoietin.

also serum urea increases, which shortens RBC lifespan.

Treat with IV erythropoietin and iron.

10

What does the recurrent laryngeal nerve supply?

Intrinsic muscles of the larynx

11

Name the structures found in the:

a) superior mediastinum

b) middle mediastinum

c) posterior mediastinum

a) SVC, trachea, oesophagus, thymus, vagus and phrenic nerve

b) pericardium, heart, aygous vein and main bronchi

c) thoracic aorta, azygous and hemiazygous vein

12

Why does advanced lung cancer involving apex of the lung cuase wasting of intrinsic muscles of the right hand, parasthesiae and distended superficial veins?

Carcinoma can spread from apex of lung to brachial plexus, wasting hand muscles.

Distended veins due to compression of the subclavian vein

13

How does hypocapnia result in hypercalcaemia?

low pco2 --> alkalosis --> ionised plasma proteins which cant bind to free calcium --> hypercalcaemia.

14

Where is CSF made?

Ventricular spaces of the brain

15

How does chronic bronchitis and emphysema result in airway obstruction?

Chronic bronchitis - mucus hypersecretion and increased bronchial wall thickness

EMphysema - bullae, decrease in elastic recoil

16

What are the spirometry findings in COPD

FVC normal, FEV1:FVC ratio below 70%

17

Why is asthma worse at night?

Reduced lung volume when lying down results in airway narrowing

18

Why are sickle cell patients at greater risk from encapsulated bacteria?

Functional asplenia due to spleen breaking down sickle RBC.

Also blockage of microvasculature of the spleen by sickle cell RBC

19

Name 4 types of lung cancer

Squamous carcinoma

Adenocarcinoma

Large cell undifferentiated carcinoma

Small cell carcinoma

20

What would sudden onset pleuritic pain and haemopytsis suggest? 

Pulmonary embolism

21

Give the avg value for PEFR

600 l / min

22

what are delta cells?

cells in the stomach and intestine that produce somatostatins that inhibit gastrin production.

23

Why is a femoral hernia more likely to be incarcerated than an inguinal hernia?

Femoral canal has a tighter entrance

24

What is the enzyme responsible for conjugating bilirubin in the liver?

UDP-glucoronyl transferase

25

Blood supply of the ureters?

Top third is renal arteries

Middle is common iliac

Bottom is Internal iliac

26

What colour stool and urine will you get if the bile duct is blocked?

Stool is pale

Urine is dark

27

What is tenesmus? What is it caused by?

Sensation of incomplete defacation. 

Caused by tumour in rectum which stretches receptor

28

What is intussusception?

Bowel invaginates into another bowel and leads to intestinal destruction.

29

What are the nerve roots of the pudendal nerve?

s2-s4

30

What are the nerve roots of the sciatic nerve?

L4 - S3