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Flashcards in Resp drugs Deck (33):
1

Palivizumab (mechanism and use)

Monoclonal Ab against F protein
Prevents pneumonia caused by RSV infection in premies

2

Gemcitabine (mechanism and use)

EGFR inhibitor
For NSCLC harboring EGFR mutation (adenocarcinoma)

3

Nitrites (mechanism and use)

Oxidizes Hb to methemoglobin, which binds cyanide
For cyanide poisoning

4

Thiosulfate (mechanism and use)

Binds cyanide
For cyanide poisoning

5

Methylene blue (use)

Treat methemoglobinemia

6

1st generation H1 blockers (mechanism)

Names w/ "-en/-ine" or "-en/-ate" -> diphenhydramine, dimenhydrinate, chlorpheniramine, brompheniramine,
Others: hydroxyzine, promethazine
1st generation H1 blocker (reversible) -> considered REVERSE blockade b/c it works by increasing the proportion of inactive H1 receptors
Crosses BBB

7

1st generation H1 blockers (3 uses)

Allergy
Motion sickness
Sleep aid

8

1st generation H1 blockers (4 side effects)

Sedation (crosses BBB)
Antimuscarinic
Anti alpha adrenergic
Paradoxical rxn (increased HR, palpitations, hyperactivity)

9

"-adine" + cetirizine (mechanism)

Loratadine, fexofenadine, desloratadine, cetirizine
2nd generation H1 blocker (reversible) -> considered REVERSE blockade b/c it works by increasing the proportion of inactive H1 receptors
Doesn't cross BBB as well so less sedating than 1st gen

10

"-adine" + cetirizine (use)

Allergy

11

Guaifenesin (use)

Expectorant (thins resp secretions)
Doesn't suppress cough reflex

12

N-acetylcysteine (3 uses)

Expectorant (mucolytic; can help loosen mucous plugs in CF by cleaving disulfide bonds w/in glycoproteins)
Antidote for acetaminophen overdose
Prevent radiocontrast-induced nephropathy

13

Dextromethorphan (mechanism)

Antagonizes NMDA receptors
Synthetic codein analog

14

Dextromethorphan (use)

Antitussive

15

Dextromethorphan (side effect)

Mild opioid effect when used in excess, mild abuse potential

16

Dextromethorphan (antidote)

Naloxone

17

Theophylline (mechanism)

A methylxanthine
Inhibits cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) -> increased cAMP -> bronchodilation

18

Theophylline (use and side effects)

Asthma drug
But usage limited b/c narrow therapeutic index (SEIZURES AND TACHYARRHYTHMIAS!) -> treat tachyarrhythmias w/ beta blockers, seizures w/ benzodiazepines and barbiturates
Blocks actions of adenosine (caffeine does the same thing)

19

Theophylline (metabolism)

P-450

20

"-asone" (mechanism)

Beclomethasone, fluticasone
Corticosteroids - inactivates NF-KB transcription factor -> inhibits synthesis of virtuall all cytokines

21

"-asone" (use)

1st line for chronic asthma

22

"-lukast" (mechanism)

Montelukast, zafirlukast -> "Lukas blocks receptors"
Blocks leukotriene receptors CysLT1

23

"-lukast" (use)

Asthma (esp good for aspirin-induced asthma)

24

Zileuton (mechanism)

Inhibits 5-lipoxygenase pathway -> can't convert arachidonic acid to leukotrienes

25

Zileuton (use)

Asthma

26

Omalizumab (mechanism)

Monoclonal IgE Ab

27

Omalizumab (use)

Allergic asthma resistant to inhaled steroids and long-acting B2 agonists

28

Bosentan and other "-sentan" (mechanism)

Competitively inhibits endothelin-1 receptors -> decreased pulm vascular resistance

29

Bosentan and other "-sentan" (use)

Pulm arterial HTN

30

Cromolyn (mechanism and use)

Mast cell stabilizer
Asthma controller (prophylaxis only, not for acute attacks)

31

Nedocromil (mechanism and use)

Mast cell stabilizer
Asthma controller (prophylaxis only, not for acute attacks)

32

Flunisolide (mechanism and use)

Inhaled glucocorticoids
For asthma

33

Flunisolide (side effects)

Oral candidiasis (so encourage good oral care)
Dysphonia (myopathy of laryngeal muscles)
Systemic side effects at higher dose: same as other glucocorticoids