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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (27):
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What is tidal volume?

Volume inspired and expired with each normal breath

1

What is inspiratory reserve volume?

The volume that can be inspired over and above tidal volume.
Used during exercise

2

What is expiratory reserve volume?

The volume that can be expired after expiration of tidal volume

3

What is residual volume?

Volume that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration
Cannot be measured by spirometry

4

What is anatomical dead space?

Volume in conducting airways

5

What is inspiratory capacity?

TV + IRV

6

What is functional residual capacity?

Is the volume remaining in the lungs when a tidal volume is expired
ERV + RV
Cannot be measured by spirometry

7

What is vital capacity or forced vital capacity ?

The volume of air that can be forcibly expired after a maximal inspiration
TV + IRV + ERV

8

What is total lung capacity?

The sum of all 4 lung volumes
Is the volume in the lungs after maximal inspiration
Cannot be measured by spirometry

9

What is the forced expiratory volume FEV1?

The volume of air that can be expired in the 1st second of a forced maximal expiration

10

What do the internal intercostal a do during respiration?

Pull ribs downward and inward

11

What is the most important muscle for inspiration?

Diaphragm

12

What is compliance ?

The distensibility of lung and chest wall

13

What happens to lung compliance in emphysema ?

1. Lung compliance is increased
2. Tendency for lung to collapse is decreased

14

Where are beta 2 adrenoreceptors ?

Lungs

15

What shifts the oxygen dissociation curve to the right?

1. Increase in carbon dioxide
2. Increase in temperature
3. Increase in H (reduced pH)
4. Increase in 2,3 - diphosphoglycerate

16

What does IPPV do?

1. Increase mean airway pressure
2. Increase pulmonary vascular resistance and decrease pre load
3. Increase ADH secretion, decrease CO, decrease renal blood flow and UO

17

What is the peak expiratory flow volume?

520-700l/min

18

What is the total lung capacity?

5-6.5L

19

What is FRC?

2 - 3L

20

What is TV?

500 - 700ml

21

What are central chemoreceptors sensitive to?

Carbon dioxide

22

What are peripheral chemoreceptors sensitive to?

Oxygen

23

Where are the peripheral chemoreceptors?

1. Aortic body - located in the wall of the arch of aorta
2. Two nodular carotid bodies in left and right common carotid arteries

24

How much blood volume can the pulmonary vessels accommodates and the normal resting conditions

500 mL

25

Valsalva manoeuvre

1. Expiring forcibly against a closed glottis
2. Decrease venous return to right atrium - decrease diastolic filling to right atrium
3. Diminished pulse pressure
4. Decreased CO
5. When sustained - mild tachycardia and rise in diastolic BP

26

1/2 life of carboxyhaemoglobin in 100% O2

30min