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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (33)
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1

Pharynx and larynx issues

Acute pharyngitis: Inflammation of pharyngeal walls(tonsils, palate, uvula)

Peritonsillar abscess: Group A Strep

Laryngeal polyps: On vocal cords- overuse and abuse

2

Acute bronchitis

Mainly viral cause
Can also be irritants in air, asthma


Usual assessment: Cough

Mangement: symptom relief, prevent pneumonia

High Fowler's or whatever position is comfortable

3

Pneumonia

Infection that inflames alveoli- may fill with liquid


Risk factors: over 65, bedrest/immobility, debilitating illness, chronic disease.


Prevention: immunization over 65\


HAP, CAP, necrotizing, aspiration, opportunistic

Viral most common


Complications: ARDS, septic shock, atelectasis

4

ARDS

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Widespread rapid infection of lungs- commonly caused by sepsis/systemic inflammation



Shortness of breath, tachypnea, cyanosis

alveoli collapse

5

Tuberculosis

Primary: Bacteria inhaled, get infected, inflammatory reaction

Reactivation: 2+ yrs. after initial infection

Latent: Positive skin test, asymptomatic


Assessment: Dry cough leads to productive cough, fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, night sweats.

6

12 dose regimen for latent tb infection

Once weekly for 12 weeks

Directly observed therapy

7

Directly observed therapy

Intensive phase: 2-3months
Medication taken under direct supervision of staff

Continuation phase: 4-6 months: blisterpack given, first dose taken under supervision

8

Rib fracture treatment

Pain meds
Deep breathing
Coughing when you can

9

Tension pneumothorax

Poke with needle
Chest tube

PT will be short of breath, blue and low 02 sat

10

Flail chest treatment

Splint w/pillow on flail side

11

Assessment of chest tubes

FOCA

Fluctuation of water seal chamber

Output

Color

Air leak

12

Chest tube troubleshooting

DOPE

Dislodgement

Obstruction

Pneumothorax

Equipment

13

Pleural drainage w/chest tubes

Tidal bubbling expected w/pneumothorax

Check connections for leaks

5th intercostal space, mid axillary line.

Sterile technique

14

Pulmonary edema

Most common cause L side HF

Hear crackles-can have sudden onset

Low spO2
Dyspnea

15

Asthma

Assessment:
Wheezing, anxiety

Risks: allergens, respiratory infection, air pollution

Asthma triad

beta blockers can trigger->bronchospasm
ACE inhibitors can cause cough

Sulfites can trigger (can be in fruits, beer, wine, vegetables)

Watch for silent chest

16

Asthma triad

Nasal polyps

Asthma

Sensitivity to NSAIDS and aspirin

17

Silent chest

If pt was wheezing, then sudden absence of wheeze- very bad, cannot breathe.

Life threatening, may need mechanical ventilation

18

Status asthmaticus

Most extreme asthma attack

Hypoxia, hypercapnia, acute respiratory failure.

Unresponsive to corticosteroids and bronchodilators

Must be immediately intubated, mechanical ventilation.

19

Asthma treatment

Main: short acting beta adrenergic (SABA- rescue drugs) bronchodilators- albuterol

Moderate to severe attack: ipratroprium (atrovent) w/SABA: AKA combivent


Frequent attacks also have to be on long term med: Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)

20

Combivent

SABA and irpratroprium combined.

21

What asthma meds are quick relief

SABA, anticholinergic (ipratroprium)

22

Long term asthma meds

Corticosteroids
Inhaled (fluticasone)
Singulair
Xolair

23

Which asthma med is easiest to use and most effective

Nebulizers transfer more meds than MDI w/spacer

Easy to use

ex. albuterol, ipratroprium

24

COPD

Chronic inflammation of lungs and airway.

25

Chronic bronchitis

Couch and sputum production for at least 3 months/year in 2 consecutive years

26

Emphysema

Destruction of alveoli w/o fibrosis.
Mucus hypersecretion

Air becomes trapped on inspiration=barrel shape (hyperinflation of lungs)

Pulmonary HTN

27

Long acting beta agonist bronchodilators

Symbicort(combo w/corticosteroid)

Salmeterol

28

Anticholinergic bronchodilators

Short acting:
Ipratroprium

Long acting:
Tiotropium

29

Anti inflammatory corticosteroids

LONG TERM:
Beclomethasone
Budesonide
Fluticasone

30

If you have meds to give for airway clearance which do you give first?

Bronchodilator first

THEN

Corticosteroid etc.

Cant work if they can't get into lungs.