Respiratory Disease Flashcards Preview

Term 2 - CVS and Resp > Respiratory Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Disease Deck (124):
1

Causes of bronchial asthma are

atopy
airway hyper-responsiveness
inflammation (by increased IgE)

2

Bronchial asthma goes on to cause

inflammation of bronchi
airflow limitation
exudation
hypertrophy
epithelial damage

3

Signs of bronchial asthma are

decreased ciliated cells
increased goblet cells
(metaplasia)

4

Symptoms of bronchial asthma are

wheeze
increased RR and HR
cough
SOB

5

To investigate bronchial asthma, one should carry out which tests?

PEF on walk
spirometry
blood and sputum
CXR

6

How do you treat bronchial asthma?

avoidance/education
B2 agonists
antimuscarines
inhaled/oral CCS
LTRAs

7

What 'qualifies' as bronchitis?

cough and sputum for 3/12 months for 2 years in a row

8

What causes bronchitis?

smoking
pollution
occupational dust
hypoxaemia
hypoventilation
decreased diffusion (no alveoli)

9

What does bronchitis cause in the large airways?

mucous gland hyperplasia
goblet cell hyperplasia

10

What does bronchitis cause in small airways?

goblet cells appear
inflammation
fibrosis

11

What are the signs of bronchitis (and emphysema)?

Wheeze
Raised RR
Hyperinflation

12

Symptoms of bronchitis (and emphysema)

breathlessness
cough
sputum
infection

13

Investigations for bronchitis (and emphysema)

CXR
LFTs
Increased Hb
ABGs
ECG

14

Treatment of bronchitis (and emphysema)

Dilators
Less smoking
Antibiotics (acute)
Diuretics (oedema)
More FlO2 (hypoventilation)

15

Causes of emphysema

centriacinar (smoke)
panacinar
perinacinar
scar/bullous

16

Emphysema can cause

increased air spaces in acinus (dilation, wall destruction)
less alveolar attachments

17

UTRIs like pharyngitis are caused by

adenovirus
EBV, RSV
flu
rhino virus
strep pyogenes

18

Signs of a UTRI include

loss of appetite
lymphadenopathy
dysphagia
pus
fauces inflammation

19

Symptoms of a UTRI include

fever
sore throat

20

Investigations of a UTRI include

throat swab
nasal swab
FBC

21

What can treat a UTRI?

rest
paracetamol
aspirin

22

Infectious mononucleosis is caused by

EBV
Kissing

23

Signs of infectious mononucleosis are

lymphadenopathy
red rash
splenomega

24

Symptoms of infectious mononucleosis are

fever
pharyngitis

25

Infectious mononucleosis can be investigated using

blood film (atyp mononuclear cells)
monospot
IgM/IgG

26

Infectious mononucleosis can be treated with

steroids (severe cases)
aspirin gargles

27

What is another name for infectious mononucleosis?

Glandular fever

28

Pneumonia can be caused by what bacteria?

Chlamydia psittachi
Staphylococcus pneumoniae
Coxiella burnetti
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Legionella pneumophila

29

What else can cause pneumonia?

Hospital acquired
Community acquired
Health-care acquired
Aspiration

30

What can be causes by pneumonia?

Fibrin exudate
organisation
consolidation
leucocytosis

31

Signs of pneumonia

rapid/shallow breathing
asymmetric CXR
dull to percuss
bronchial breathing

32

Symptoms of pneumonia include

fever (39.5)
pleuritic pain
dry rough
rusty sputum
rub

33

Pneumonia tests are

CXR
Cultures
IgM/IgG
FBC

34

Pneumonia treatments include

CAP: amoxicillin, clarithromycin
ciprofloxacin

35

Causes of bronchiectasis

infection
obstruction
tissue destruction
CF

36

Bronchiectasis causes

dilation of bronchi near pleura

37

Signs of bronchiectasis are

crackles
rub
halitosis (bad breath)

38

Bronchiectasis symptoms are

cough
lots of foul sputum
malaise

39

Bronchiectasis investigations:

CXR
CT
Sputum
Serum Ig

40

Treatment of bronchiectasis

localised surgery
drainage
antibiotics
dilators
anti inflammatories

41

What are the main causes of lung cancer?

Smoking
Occupation

42

What are the 4 main types of lung cancer?

Small Cell
Non-Small Cell:
- adenocarcinoma
- large cell carcinoma
- squamous carcinoma

43

Signs of lung cancer are:

lymphadenopathy
pleural effusion
compressed phrenic nerve
hoarse voice
Horner's syndrome (eyelids drop)
Clubbing

44

Symptoms of lung cancer?

shoulder pain (pancoast)
cough
pain
haemoptysis
SOB
malaise

45

Treatment options for lung cancer are

stage TNM
surgery
chemo/radio theraphy
tracheobronchial stent (stridor)

46

Signs of a pleural effusion are:

bronchial breathing
decreased vocal resonance
raised JVP
trachea away

47

Symptoms of pleural effusion are

increased SOB (weeks)
pleuritic pain
dry cough

48

Investigations for pleural effusion include a biopsy of how many samples? And what physical examination?

3 histology, 1 microbiology

thoracoscopy

49

A small pneumothorax =

50

A large pneumothorax =

> 2 cm

51

Causes of a pneumothorax =

spontaneous
primary - no disease
secondary - disease
trauma

52

What diseases can cause a pneumothorax?

COPD
TB
Asthma
Pneumonia

53

Pneumothorax leads to

air in thorax
collapsed lung
pleural breach

54

Signs of a pneumothorax are

absent breath sounds
trachea away

55

Symptoms of a pneumothorax are

acute SOB
pleuritic pain

56

How to fix a pneumothorax

drain
aspirate to lung felt on venflon

57

Where do you place a chest drain for a pneumothorax?

3rd intercostal space midaxillary line
the safe triangle

58

Where do you place a chest drain for a haemothorax?

5th intercostal space midaxillary line

59

What is the best aspiration site for pleural fluid?

9th intercostal space midaxillary line

60

What is mesothelioma?

asbestos induced lung cancer

61

A sign of mesothelioma includes

pleural effusion

62

Symptoms of mesothelioma include

pleuritic pain
breathlessness

63

How to look for mesothelioma

biopsy
thoracoscopy
pleurodesis
CXR/CT

64

Treatment options for mesothelioma

pneumonectomy (early)
radiotherapy

65

Asbestosis is caused by what type of asbestos fibre most commonly?

crocidolite (blue)

66

What two other types of asbestos fibre are there?

chrysotile (white)
amosite (brown)

67

Who tends to get asbestosis/pleural plaques?

plumbers
electricians

68

Asbestosis/pleural plaques can cause

pleural thickening (parietal)
calcification
restricted ventilation
inflammation/injury

69

Mesothelial cells pull _____ into pleural space, forming ____________

fluid
pleural effusion

70

Signs of asbestosis/pleural plaques =

progressive dyspnoea
clubbing
crackles

71

What causes diffuse alveolar damage?

trauma
chemicals/toxins
shock
drugs
infection
radiation

72

What can diffuse alveolar damage lead to?

exudate
hyaline membranes
fibrin
more epithelium and fibroblasts
fibrosis
consolidation

73

Sarcoidosis is caused by

type 4 hypersensitivity
multiorgan formation of granulomas

74

Sarcoidosis leads to

granulomas (giant cells)
non caseating

75

Signs of sarcoidosis

lymphadenopathy
abnormal CXR
lung/liver involvement

76

Sarcoidosis symptoms

SOB
cough
arthralgia (joint pain)

77

Investigations for sarcoidosis =

CXR, biopsy
increased Ca2+ or ACE

78

Corticosteroids alone treat which diseases?

sarcoidosis
hypersensitive pneumonitis
unusual interstitial pneumonitis
asbestosis

79

Hypersensitive pneumonitis is known as

farmers lung

80

Hypersensitive pneumonitis is cause by

fungi (aspiration)
bird/animal faeces
chemicals

81

Hypersensitive pneumonitis can cause

Type 3/4 hypersensitivity
Ig/Ag deposits in lung
centriacinar granuloma
fibrosis
eoisoniphilia
bronchitis obliterans

82

Signs of Hypersensitive pneumonitis are

crackles
wheeze
increased RR

83

Symptoms of Hypersensitive pneumonitis are

fever
dry cough
malaise
chills
SOB

84

Hypersensitive pneumonitis can be looked into with

CXP
sputum

85

TB is caused by

HIV
myobacterium (m) tuberculosis
m. avium
m. kansasii
m. bovis
cows milk

86

TB causes

It is mediated by

neutrophil granulomas
macrophages --> necrosis
langerhans cells
calcification
fibrosis

Th1

87

TB signs are

night sweats
haemoptosis
pleural effusion
mucual sputum

88

Symptoms of TB =

cough
general illness
asymptomatic

89

TB tests include

CXR
Culture
Biopsy
PCR
Heaf Test/Mantoux

90

TB treatments are _____ and cause ______

Rifampicin - orange fluids
Isoniazid - hepatitis
Ethambutol - optic nerve damage
Pyrzine - gout

91

Transplant criteria for CF is

FEV1

92

Contraindications for transplant in CF are

organ failure
CCS>20mg
malignant
drugs/nicotine
peripheral vascular disease

93

CF causes patients to have

no change in FEV1
vitamin E deficiency

94

Signs of CF are

increased salt in sweat
pancreatic insufficiency
failure to thrive
orange, pale, offensive stools
scarring
abscess
chest infections

95

Symptoms of CF are

nasal polyps
males are infertile
meconium ileus
IBD (inflammatory bowel disease)

96

CF tests include

Guthrie test
immunoreactive trypsinogen
mutation analysis
heelstick (newborns)

97

CF treatments are

enzyme pellets
high energy diet (not low fat)
vitamins A D E and K
hypertonic saline
mucolytics
proton pump inhibitors

98

Sleep apnoea can be causes by

obesity

99

Sleep apnoea can cause

URT obstruction
O2 desaturation

100

Snoring, unrefreshing sleep, daytime tiredness, decreasec concentration are all caused by

sleep apnoea

101

Sleep apnoea can be studied using

over night sleep study
polysomnography

102

Sleep apnoea can be treated by

decreasing alcohol and weight
treat endocrine disorder
mandibular splint

103

Type I respiratory failure =

decreased PaO2

104

Type II respiratory failure =

decreased PaO2
increased PCO2

105

ARDS - acute rest distress syndrome a cause of

respiratory failure

106

Type I resp failure can cause

lung disease
VQ mismatch
shunts
oedema
pneumothorax
acute hypoxia

107

Type II resp failure can cause

ventilation failure
COPD
overdose
decreased effort when breathing

108

Signs of resp failure are

increased RR
hypoxia
crackles

109

Symptoms of resp failure are

ARDS
fibrosis
oedema
exudate
haemorrhage

110

Investigations for rest failure include

pulse oximetry
ABGs
capnography (monitoring PCO2)

111

TED stands for

thromboembolic disorder

112

TED, DVT and PE are caused by

pelvic clot
cardiac thrombi
septic emboli
air
amniotic fluid

113

PE, DVT and TED can cause

surgery, burns, trauma
cancer, stroke
paralysed legs
obesity

114

Signs of PE, DVT and TED are

Systolic BP

115

PE, DVT and TED symptoms include

pain
cough
haemoptysis
fever

116

Investigations for PE, DVT and TED are

D-Dimer
ABG
CXR, ECG
Doppler
Echo

117

PE, DVT and TED can be treated using

anticoags
resp support
O2 ventilation
IV fluids
analgesia
heparin
thrombolytics

118

If V/Q is positive you ALWAYS

treat it

119

PHT (Pulmonary Hypertension) =

>25mmHg at rest
>35mmHg during exercise

120

PHT causes

hypoxic vasoconstriction
decreased RR & surface area of pulmonary vascular bed
severe RHF
RV vol/pressure overload

121

PHT signs are

loud P2
R ventricle heave
ejection systolic murmur on inspiration

122

PHT symptoms are

SOB
fatigue
syncope
tightness
ankle swelling
haemoptysis
RUQ pain

123

PHT tests include

CXR
Echo
ECG
VQ scan

124

PHT treatments include

warfarin
O2 diuretics
CCBs
NO
surgery
transplant