Flashcards in Respiratory Drugs (Gas#4) Deck (60)
Types of Bronchodilators
Anticholinergics, Beta-Adrenergic-Agonists (Sympathomimetics) & Methylxanthines
What do Anticholinergics do and what are they used for?
they block the vagus nerve allowing bronchodilation & they reduce mucus. used for chronic conditions (COPD) not acute
Do not use Anticholinergics with what type of people?
People with glaucoma, hyperthyroidism & hypertension because it is an atropine derivative
Ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) is what and how many times can you use it and what else is it used for?
Short Acting Anticholinergics MDI 4xqd, used also for allergic rhinitis
triotropium (Spiriva) and how many times can you use it?
Long acting Anticholinergics powder once a day
Side effects of Anticholinergics
dry mouth & throat, cough
What do Beta Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics) do
stimulate beta2 adrenoreceptors, dilate the bronchi, stimulate mucus clearance
what are Beta Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics) used for?
acute asthma attacks, prophylaxis for both exercise induced asthma and exposure to known allergies
Isoproterenol, Epinephrine, Ephedrine are what?
Nonselective Beta Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)
Salmerol (Serevent) & formoterol (Foradil).& what are they never used for
Selective long lasting Beta Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics) Never for PRN use!
albuterol (proventil, accolate, ventolin), levalbuterol (Xopenex), terbutaline (Brethine)
Selective short acting Beta Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)
side effects of nonselective Beta Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)
tachycardia, arrhythmias, angina
side effects of selective long/short acting Beta Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)
nervousness, anxiety, insomnia, irritability, dizziness, sweating, increased BP
Beta Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics) mimic what system?
sympathetic nervous system which increases BP, Resp, dilates bronchi, decreases GI & kidney flow
What should you watch for in a patient who is taking a Beta Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)
respirations, BO, GI & kidneys
Therapeutic range for Methylaxanthines
What are Methylaxanthines used for?
prophylaxis of asthma, used with newborns who don't breath well
What do Methylaxanthines do?
increase bronchodilation, decrease histamine release, stimulate ciliary transport of mucus, improve contractility of diaphram, increases CO
if a patient who smokes is on a Methylaxanthine, how does that change the prescription?
dose may be higher because cigarettes increase the metabolism of the drug.
what things increase the toxicity of Methylaxanthines
coffee, beta blockers, CCB, antibiotics, alcohol, BC with estrogen
what do you monitor when a patient is one Methylaxanthines
when should you give a Methylaxanthines
during the day to prevent insomnia and take with food to prevent GI upset
what side effects do Methylaxanthines have on the CNS, GI and Cardiac
CNS:nervousness, insomnia, HA, dizziness, tremors(late sign), GI, Nausea (1st sign), vomiting, anorexia, Cardiac: tachycardia, angina, hypotension
what things decrease the therapeutic level of Methylaxanthines?
smoking, antiseizure meds & Benzos
When do corticosteriods take effect?
can take days
what do corticosteriods put you at risk for?
hypokalemia, hypocalemia, hyertension, increased BS
What is the first/late sign that you have reached toxic xathine levels?
1st: N/v 2nd; tremors
Mast cell stabilizers are more effective in what kinds of people?
children rather than old people
Do mast cell stabilizers have a bronchodilating effect?
Inhibits leukotrine receptors/inhibits leukotrine synthesis
When do you take leukotrine inhibitors?
Long acting Beta Agonist
Short acting Beta Agonist
albuterol, xopenex, brethine
Anticholinergics end in?
Methylxanthines end in?
Mast Cell Stabilizers
Mast cell stabilizers
Singular & Zyflo
Glucocorticoids end in?
prednisone, Solumedrol, flovent
Prednisone, Solumedrol, Flovent
Are Mast cells stabilizers used for acute treatment or prophlyaxis?
prophlyaxis not acute
What do Mast cells prevent from coming into the cells?
Glucocorticoids increase what metaboism?
CHO, protein & fat metabolism
Limit the use of decongestants to how many days?
Afrin, Sinutab, Sudafed, Coricidin
Function of Antitussives
Codeine sulfate, Hycodan
Codeine Sulfate & Hycodan
Tessalon & Benylin
Function of Mucolytics
makes secretions less tenacious & used for tylenol overdose
function of expectorants
makes secretions easier to cough up
Combivent is made of what? and what does it prevent
Its a combination of a anticholinergic & beta-agonist and it prevents broncospasms in people with COPD