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Flashcards in Respiratory pathology Deck (65):
1

PaO2 of respiratory failure

8

2

PaO2 of type 1 respiratory failure, and what is driving it?

3

PaO2 of type 2 respiratory failure, and what is driving it?

>6.3kPa, hypercapnic drive

4

Two types of carcinoma

Small cell and non small cell

5

4 types non small cell

Squamous
Undifferentiated large cell
Adenocarcinoma
Large cell neuroendocrine

6

90% smokers have which type of lung cancer?

Squamous small cell carcinoma

7

Which cancer can mimic pneumonia?

Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma

8

Neuroendocrine tumours are detected using what?

CD56 and neurosecretory granule proteins- chromogranin, synaptophysin

9

4 features of typical carcinoid tumours

No necrosis, bland
Distant mets are rare
Not assoc with smoking
May occlude bronchioles

10

Thyroid transcription factor is expressed by which 3 carcinomas?

Adenocarcinoma
Undifferentiated large cell carcinoma
Small cell

11

Small cell carcinomas also secrete what?

ACTH and ADH

12

What does TNM staging include as well as the usual?

Atelectasis of lobe/lung

13

2 causes of pleural effusion

Inflammatory-exudate
Congestive heart failure- transudate

14

Which colour asbestos is the worst?

Blue (or brown but blue worst)

15

Signs of mesothelioma?

Small plaques/nodules on parietal pleura
Effusion

16

What type of cells in mesothelioma

Spindle and epitheliod

17

What pathogen causes pneumonia in the elderly, diabetics and alcoholics?

Klebsiella pneumoniae

18

What pathogen causes pneumonia in the elderly, diabetics and alcoholics?

Klebsiella pneumoniae

19

PaO2 of type 1 respiratory failure, and what is driving it?

20

Complications of bronchiectasis?

Pneumonia
Septicaemia
Metastatic infection
Amyloidosis

21

Two types of carcinoma

Small cell and non small cell

22

4 types non small cell

Squamous
Undifferentiated large cell
Adenocarcinoma
Large cell neuroendocrine

23

90% smokers have which type of lung cancer?

Squamous small cell carcinoma

24

Which cancer can mimic pneumonia?

Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma

25

Neuroendocrine tumours are detected using what?

CD56 and neurosecretory granule proteins- chromogranin, synaptophysin

26

4 features of typical carcinoid tumours

No necrosis, bland
Distant mets are rare
Not assoc with smoking
May occlude bronchioles

27

Thyroid transcription factor is expressed by which 3 carcinomas?

Adenocarcinoma
Undifferentiated large cell carcinoma
Small cell

28

Small cell carcinomas also secrete what?

ACTH and ADH

29

What does TNM staging include as well as the usual?

Atelectasis of lobe/lung

30

Symptoms and signs of interstitial lung disease

Slowly increasing dyspnoea
Clubbing
Fine crackles
Dry cough

31

Which colour asbestos is the worst?

Blue (or brown but blue worst)

32

Signs of mesothelioma?

Small plaques/nodules on parietal pleura
Effusion

33

What type of cells in mesothelioma

Spindle and epitheliod

34

2 types pneumonia

Lobar pneumonia
Bronchopneumonia

35

What pathogen causes pneumonia in the elderly, diabetics and alcoholics?

Klebsiella pneumoniae

36

What is bronchiectasis's permanent dilation due to?

Destruction of muscle and elastic tissue. Chronic necrotising infection

37

Symptoms bronchiectasis

Cough
Fever
Foul smelling sputum

38

Complications of bronchiectasis?

Pneumonia
Septicaemia
Metastatic infection
Amyloidosis

39

COPD is ? + ?

Chronic bronchitis and emphysema

40

3 types emphysema

Centrilobar
Panlobar
Paraseptal

41

Centrilobar emphysema is associated with what?

Smoking

42

Panlobar emphysema is associated with what?

Alpa 1 antitrypsin

43

Interstitial lung disease obstructive or restrictive?

Restrictive

44

Acute interstitial lung disease leads to?

Adult respiratory distress syndrome

45

Which cells have hyperplasia in acute interstitial lung disease

Type II pneumocytes

46

Chronic interstitial lung disease results in '??lung'

Honeycomb

47

2 diseases that may lead to chronic interstitial lung disease

Sarcoidosis
Pulmonary fibrosis

48

Symptoms and signs of interstitial lung disease

Slowly increasing dyspnoea
Clubbing
Fine crackles
Dry cough

49

How does the pleura appear in idiopathic interstitial lung disease?

Bosselated (cobble stone)

50

Sarcoidosis is what?

perilymphatic pulmonary granulomas then fibrosis

51

What organs does sarcoidosis affect?

Lungs, skin, heart, brain

52

Blood test signs of sarcoidosis

Hypercalcaemia, raised serum ACE

53

Who usually gets sarcoidosis?

Young adult females

54

What are pneumoconioses?

'dust diseases'- lung disease due to inhaled fibrinogens, allergens or carcinogens

55

Particles must be less than ? micrometers to reach alveoli

3

56

Pneumoconeosis from coal dust? Symptoms?

Anthracosis
Fibrosis and COPD

57

Pneumoconeosis from sand and stone dust? Symptoms?

Silicosis
Firbosis and fibrous silicotic nodules.

58

Complications of silicosis?

Reactivation of TB
Cancer risk

59

Pneumoconeosis assoc with asbestos

Asbestosis

60

How are asbestosis tissue sections different?

Identifiable asbestos fibre

61

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is what type of reaction?

Type 3 hypersensitivity

62

Farmer's lung is a reaction to?

Actinomycetes in hay

63

Pigeon fancier's lung is a reaction to?

Pigeon antigens

64

Pathogenesis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis?

Inflammation and non-caseating granulomas
Repeated episodes leads to interstitial fibrosis.

65

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is also known as?

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis