Respiratory Physiology Flashcards Preview

Year 1 Body Systems > Respiratory Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Physiology Deck (126)

What kind of condition are Asthma, COPD and Lung cancer?



What kind of conditions are pulmonary fibrosis, pneumothorax, scoliosis (intrinsic/extrinsic)?

Pulmonary fibrosis = intrinsic restrictive
Pneumothorax, scoliosis = extrinsic restrictive


What extra muscles do you use for inspiration with increasing effort?

Neck muscles
Shoulder muscles


What extra muscles do you use for expiration with increasing effort?

Abdominal muscles


What does a spirometer measure?

Volume of air in and out of lungs during ventilation


What happens to the TLC, VC, FRC and RV in restrictive conditions?

All reduced


What happens to TLC, RV, and FRC in obstructive conditions?

RV is increased (cant get last bit of air out)
TLC is reduced (COPD) or increased (emphysema)
FRC is increased in emphysema


Are pulmonary fibrosis, kyphyscoliosis and circuferential burn associated with increased or reduced compliance?

Reduced (less stretchy)


Is emphysema associated with increased or reduced compliance?

Increased (more stretchy)


What is Laplaces law?

pressure = (2x surface tension)/radius of bubble


Why does surfactant prevent atelectasis?

Spread thicker in smaller alveoli so decreases the surface tension more greatly in them than larger alveoli so you end up with the same pressure


What is the make up of surfactant?

90% phospholipid
10% protein


In what syndrome is surfactant deficient?

Respiratory distress syndrome


From laminar flow to turbulent flow by how much is the work increased?

Power of 2


How much of energy expenditure is spent on respiration in health at rest>?



How much energy expenditure is spent on respiration at maximum hyperventilation?



How is work of respiration minimised in restrictive conditions?

Rapid slow volume breaths


How is work of respiration minimised in obstructive conditions?

Large volume, slow breaths


Why are breath sounds greater in larger airways than smaller airways?

Higher flow rate and therefore more turbulent flow in large airways


What is Dalton's law about partial pressure of gas?

Partial pressure = total pressure x fraction of that gas


Why is partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli lower than in inspired air? 3

1) Inspired air humidified
2) O2 taken up into blood stream while CO2 is added
3) Body consumes more O2 molecules than is produces CO2


What is the relationship of partial pressure of a gas and its solubility?

Partial pressure of a gas in solution is inversely proportional to its solubility


Why in someone with pulmonary fibrosis would the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood decrease if rate of respiration and heart rate increased?

Capillary transit time is shorter than the time take for diffusion of O2


What is carbon monoxide diffusing capacity used for?

To establish if someone with reduced exercise capacity has a problem with diffusion across the alveoli


What is adult respiratory distress syndrome?

Inflammatory process, difficult to distinguish from pulmonary oedema


What muscle holds the tongue against the palate in nasal breathing?

Genioglossus muscle


What muscle lifts the soft palate away from the back of the pharynx in mouth breathing?

Tensor palati


How does the pharyngeal dilator reflex work?

1) Pressure receptors in the mucosal lining of the pharynx detect air flow
2) Send a message to the brainstem
3) Brain stem causes pharyngeal muscle contraction to open pharynx and allow air flow


What is the problem in obstructive sleep apnoea?

Pharyngeal dilator reflex doesnt work properly or pharynx cant be help open (fat deposits around the muscle in obesity)


What substances can make sleep apnoea worse? 2

Drugs and alcohol


What is the treatment for sleep apnoea? 2

1) Weight loss
2) CPAP - constant positive air pressure


What 2 conditions is obstructive sleep apnoea associated with?

1) obesity
2) Hypertension - brain overcomes obstruction releases some ADR, over years get hypertension


What are the 2 clinical features of sleep apnoea?

1) Snoring
2) Daytime somnolence (sleepiness)


What are the 2 layers of airway lining fluid?

Mucous layer and periciliary layer


What 4 things can inhibit cilia in the airway?

1) Cigarette smoke
2) Infections
3) Air pollution
4) Inhaled anaesthetics


What are the 2 functions of airway lining fluid?

1) Humidification - affected by breathing pattern, heat and moisture exchanger on way out and in, does so through active control of pericilliary layer depending on humidity of air
2) Airway defence - mucociliary escalator and expectoration


Where are very large, large, small and very small inhaled particles caught?

Very Large (>8um) - nose and pharynx
Large (3-8um) - large airways
Small (0.5-3um) - bronchioles
Very small (


What are the 3 types of non immunological pulmonary defences?

1) Physical barrier and removal
2) Chemical inactivation (lysozyme, protease, antimicrobial peptides eg. beta defensins)
3) Alveolar macrophages (engulph carbon - move to lymphatic system)


What are the 2 immunological pulmonary defences?

1) Humoral - immunoglobulins
2) Cell mediated


What are the immunoglobulins involved in pulmonary defense?

1) IgA - nose and large airways
2) IgG - small airways
3) IgE - allergic disease


What are the 4 types of cell involved in immunological pulmonary defences?

1) Epithelial cells
2) Macrophages
3) Neutrophils (infection)
4) Eosinophils (allergy)


What is the relationship between protease enzymes in pulmonary defences and alpha-1 anti trypsin deficiency?

Protease enzymes are not pathogen specific so we have an anti protease system to protect body cells
If deficient in this then have alpha 1 anti trypsin deficiency


What are the 2 ways that oxygen can be carried in the blood, in which way is it mainly carried?

1) Dissolved in the blood
2) Carried by haemoglobin - main way


How is oxygen saturation (SO2) calculated?

HbO2 / (HbO2 + HHb) basically the percentage of Hb carrying oxygen


How is the volume of O2 carried in the blood by Hb calculated?

Volume of O2 = SO2 x [Hb] x 1.39
1.39 is the Huffner constant


What is the roughly normal amount of oxygen carried in the blood a) dissolved and b) combined with Hb?

Dissolved = ~0.29ml/dl
Combined with Hb = ~19ml/dl


In what state is it easier for O2 to bind to haemaglobin?

Relaxed state


In what state is O2 pushed out of the Hb molecule?

Tense state


What is P50?

PO2 at which SO2 = 50% (~3.5kPa)


What is the rough PO2 and SO2 of arterial and venous blood?

Arterial - PO2 = 12.5kPa, SO2 = 97%
Venous - PO2 = 6.3kPa, SO2 = 75%


What is the Bohr shift?

decrease in pH - curve shifts to the right
Bohr shift is the effect of CO2 on the oxygen dissociation curve so is a RIGHT SHIFT


What is the effect of temperature of the Hb dissociation curve?

Increase in temperature - shift to the right
decrease in temperature - shift to the left


What is the effect of 2,3 DPG on the Hb dissociation curve?

Increase in 2,3 DPG - shift to the right
Decrease in 2,3 DPG - shift to the left
More 2,3 DPG in hypoxic conditions


What is methaemaglobin?

Have Fe3+ Fe atom - drug induced


What is a buffer?

Minimises changes in free H+ - usually a weak acid and its base in equilibrium


What is the most common buffer in the body?

H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-


Within what range should blood pH be held?



Other than bicarbonate, what are the 3 other body buffering systems?

1) Plasma proteins
2) Haemaglobin
3) Phosphate


What 3 ways can CO2 be carried in the blood and which is the main way?

1) Dissolved in blood
2) Carbamino compounds (bound to NH2 groups on proteins)
3) As carbonic acid/bicarbonate - main way


Where does conversion of CO2 to carbonic acid/bicarbonate take place?

In the red blood cell


What is the hamburger shift?

Occurs in the RBC
After conversion of CO2 to carbonic acid/bicarbonate the H+ ions created are buffered by Hb but the HCO3- ions are pumped out of the cell in exchange for Cl- ions
At the alveoli, the whole process is reversed and CO2 is breathed out


What is the shape of the CO2 dissociation curve?

Straight line


What is the Haldane effect?

Ability of deoxygenated blood to carry more Co2 than oxygenated blood


What does the Henderson-Hasselbach equation relate?

pH, [CO2], [HCO3-] with a constant that is the same for all human beings at 37 degrees
Basically says that pH is a function of the ratio of PCO2 and serum HCO3-


What is ventilation and perfusion?

Ventilation = movement of gases in and out
Perfusion = blood flow through any organ


What is the difference between alveolar vessels and extra alveolar vessels?

Alveolar vessels = capillary beds around alveoli
Extra alveolar vessels = running through lung parenchyma


What is hydrostatic pressure?

The force exerted by weight of fluid due to gravity


What did starlings resistor show?

Had a collapsible segment and showed that for the collapsible segment to stay patent then upstream pressure must be greater than the pressure outside of the collapsible segment


What is the relationship between arterial pressure, alveolar pressure and blood flow through alveolar vessels?

Arterial pressure must be greater than alveolar pressure for blood to flow through alveolar vessels


What affects the arterial pressure in different alveolar vessels?

Hydrostatic pressure which alters at different areas of the lungs determined by their position relative to the right ventricle


What is zone 1 in the lungs in terms of V/Q mismatch?

Dead space
Apical regions
Alveolar pressure is greater than arterial pressure so capillaries collapse
Good ventilation but no perfusion


What is zone 2 in the lungs in terms of V/Q mismatch?

Recruitment zone
Middle regions
Arterial pressure is greater than alveolar pressure so perfusion
Recruitment of alveoli in systole


What is zone 3 of the lungs in terms of V/Q mismatch?

Distension zone
Basal regions
Arterial pressure is greater than alveolar pressure so blood flow good
some alveoli may be collapsed


Why might you have expansion of the dead space (zone 1) of the lungs in haemorrhage or positive pressure ventilation?

Drop in arterial pressure - less of recruitment zone perfused
Positive pressure ventilation
Rise in alveolar pressure - so alveolar pressure is greater than arterial pressure and capillaries collapse


What would be the ideal V/Q?



What is the average V/Q and are the values higher or lower in the apical regions and basal regions?

Average = 0.8
Apical regions - higher (as much as 3.3)
Basal regions - lower (as low as 0.6)


What is anatomical dead space?

Conducting airways where no gas exchange could occur


What is alveolar dead space?

Unperfused or poorly perfused alveoli


What is physiological dead space?

Anatomical dead space + alveolar dead space


What happens to alveolar dead space in PE?



What is shunt?

Deoxygenated blood reaching the left side of the heart either by bypassing the heart or failing to be oxygenated in the lungs


How is minute ventilation calculated (VE)?

Breathing frequency x tidal volume


What are the 2 parts of the brain making up the respiratory center in the brain?

The Pons and the Medullar oblongata


What are the 2 parts of the medulla oblongata part of the respiratory center in the brain and what kind of neurones do they contain?

1) Ventral respiratory group - contains a mixture of neurones which fire during inspiration and expiration
2) Dorsal respiratory group - only contains neurones which fire during expiration


What kind of neurones are the neurones in the ventral and dorsal respiratory groups of the medulla oblongata?

Autonomic neurones - they never flat line - without any in puts they still fire


What ensures you dont get inspiratory and expiratory neurones in the medulla oblongata firing at the same time?

Reciprocal control between the ventral respiratory group (mixed) and dorsal respiratory group (only inspiration) so you dont get both inspiratory and expriatory neurones firing at the same time


Why is there very little if any expiratory activity at rest?

Expiration at rest is a passive process


What is the role of the pons part of the respiratory center in the brain?

To control the dorsal respiratory group of the medulla oblongata


What are the 2 parts of the pons part of the respiratory center in the brain an what does each do?

Apneustic center - stimulates inspiratory neurones
Pneumotaxic center - inhibits inspiratory neurones
Both only act on the dorsal respiratory group of the medulla oblongata (only contains inspiratory neurones)


What 6 factors provide information to the respiratory center in the brain?

1) Higher brain centers - voluntary control over breathing can overule
2) Stretch receptors in the lungs
3) Irritant receptors (take a deep breath in and cough)
4) Receptors in muscles and joints
5) Peripheral chemoreceptors - respond to decreased O2, increased Co2 and increased H+
6) Central chemoreceptors - only respond to increased CO2 and increased H+


What is meant by cortical and hypothalamic higher brain center influences on respiration?

Cortical - voluntary hyperventilation or breath holding
Hypothalamic - Emotions - anger/anxiety (hyperventilation) and sensory reflexes such as gasping in response to pain or cold


What happens to the firing of neurones in the medullar obongata in response to stretch receptors in the lungs as inspiration progresses?

As stretch receptors get more stretched
Get an increase firing of expiratory neurones in the ventral respiratory group
Decreased firing of inspiratory neurones in the dorsal respiratory group


What role do muscle spindles have in controlling respiration, where do they tend to be located?

Rich in intercostals, few in diaphragm
Activated in intercostals, associated with contraction in inspiration


How can baroceptors affect respiration?

They sense blood pressure but can also influence respiration
When they sense higher blood pressure you get decreased ventilation


What are J receptors and how can they affect respiration?

Next to capillaries around alveolar walls
Activated by traumas such as pulmonary oedema, inflammatory agents and thus increase ventilation


Where are peripheral chemoreceptors which control respiration located and what are the sensitive to?

Located in the carotid and aortic bodies
Sensitive to hypoxia, hypercapnia and acidosis


What kind of cells in peripheral chemoreceptors are sensitive to hypoxia?

Gloma cells


What is the prominent driver for respiration?

Changes in H+ and CO2 levels


Where are central chemoreceptors located?

Close to the medulla respiratory centers


What are central chemoreceptors sensitive to?

CO2 and H+ in cerebrospinal fluid


H+ cannot pass the blood brain barrier, how are central chemoreceptors informed of H+ levels?

CO2 can pass the BBB
In cerebrospinal fluid CO2 dissolves to form H+ which informs of H+ levels


What is the most important driver of respiration in chronic respiratory conditions?

Hypoxic drive - get used to a high level of CO2


What is the oxygen cascade?

The drop on PO2 as you pass from dry air to mitochondria


What is PO2 in arteries?



What did the Krogh model show?

Tissue is like a cylinder with a capillary moving through it
PO2 gradient decreases as you move along the cylinder and out towards the edges of the cylinder - you end up with a lethal corner - furthest point along the cylinder at the edge


What is the definition of oxygen delivery?

Amount of O2 leaving the heart in one minute (DO2)
Calculated as the product of cardiac output and the amount of O2 carried in the blood


What is the definition of O2 consumption?

Amount of O2 used by the body in 1 minute


What 3 factors affect VO2?

1) Age - peak at 0-2 years then rate falls for the rest of your life
2) Temperature - metabolic rate doubles with every 10 degree increase in temp
3) Exercise


What are the 4 physiological responses to anaemia?

1) Increased 2,3 DPG - shifts the curve to the right
2) Reduced blood flow to non essential organs
3) Increased O2 extraction from the blood
4) Increased cardiac output


What is the physiological response to high altitude?

O2 saturation decreases with altitude and the amount of Hb increases


What is the respiratory exchange ratio?

The ratio of CO2 production (VCO2) to O2 consumption (VO2)


What is a persons respiratory quotient?

RER at rest - normal value = 1


What 3 things affect the respiratory quotient?

1) Acid Base balance
2) Hyperventilation
3) Metabolic fuel


In cardio pulmonary exercise testing at what point is the anaerobic threshold reached in terms of VO2 and VCO2?

The point when VO2 is still increasing but VCO2 has stopped increasing at the same rate


What are the 3 circles in Barcroft classification of cellular hypoxia?

1) Anoxic - lack of O2 in blood
2) Stagnant - lack of blood supply
3) Anaemic - lack of Hb


Why is cardiopulmonary testing sometimes carried out on patients before they have surgery?

To make sure the have sufficient VO2 as demand during and after surgery for O2 is high so have to make sure you have sufficient VO2 max


What happens to FiO2 and PiO2 at altitude?

FiO2 stays the same but overall air pressure decreases and therefore PiO2 decreases


What is the physiological response to high altitude? 4

1) Hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis - get rid of CO2 to make room for O2
2) Increased 2,3DPG - shift curve to the right
3) Polycythaemia - slow to develop
4) Bicarbonate excretion from kidneys


What are the symptoms of mountain sickness? 6

1) Headache
2) Nausea
3) Loss of apetite
4) Difficulty sleeping/exercising
5) Amnesia
6) Dizziness


What happens in severe mountain sickness?

Cheyne strokes respiration
Cerebral/pulmonary oedema
Can be lethal


What is the problem with free diving in terms of oxygen delivery to the tissues?

As dive the lungs compress so although the volume of air decreases the pressure rises so you have sufficient PiO2
When you rise the volume increases and pressure decreases, the FiO2 has decreased aswell as you used some oxygen thus with both those factors PiO2 can decrease greatly
Main problem with free diving is severe hypoxia on ascent


When does decompression sickness (bends/staggers/creeps) occur?

Too rapid decrompression of the body causes nitrogen bubbles to form in the tissues of the body as N2 comes out of solution in the tissues
Can causes pain in the muscles and joints, cramps, numbness, nausea and paralysis


How is decompression sickness treated?

With decompression tanks


How is PiO2 kept normal in deep sea diving?

In deep sea diving as descend atmospheric pressure increases
In order to keep PiO2 normal then a lower FiO2 has to be used


What is hyperoxia and what can it cause?

Cellular oxygen toxicity
Can cause fitting due to free radical generation
Can also cause pulmonary fibrosis/ARDs (acute respiratory distress syndrome)


What is the dive reflex?

Innate reflex of many mammals
Vasoconstriction - O2 conserved to heart lungs and brain
Reflex vagal bradychardia
Suppressed ventilation drive