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Year 1 Body Systems > Respiratory Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Physiology Deck (126)
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61

What is the hamburger shift?

Occurs in the RBC
After conversion of CO2 to carbonic acid/bicarbonate the H+ ions created are buffered by Hb but the HCO3- ions are pumped out of the cell in exchange for Cl- ions
At the alveoli, the whole process is reversed and CO2 is breathed out

62

What is the shape of the CO2 dissociation curve?

Straight line

63

What is the Haldane effect?

Ability of deoxygenated blood to carry more Co2 than oxygenated blood

64

What does the Henderson-Hasselbach equation relate?

pH, [CO2], [HCO3-] with a constant that is the same for all human beings at 37 degrees
Basically says that pH is a function of the ratio of PCO2 and serum HCO3-

65

What is ventilation and perfusion?

Ventilation = movement of gases in and out
Perfusion = blood flow through any organ

66

What is the difference between alveolar vessels and extra alveolar vessels?

Alveolar vessels = capillary beds around alveoli
Extra alveolar vessels = running through lung parenchyma

67

What is hydrostatic pressure?

The force exerted by weight of fluid due to gravity

68

What did starlings resistor show?

Had a collapsible segment and showed that for the collapsible segment to stay patent then upstream pressure must be greater than the pressure outside of the collapsible segment

69

What is the relationship between arterial pressure, alveolar pressure and blood flow through alveolar vessels?

Arterial pressure must be greater than alveolar pressure for blood to flow through alveolar vessels

70

What affects the arterial pressure in different alveolar vessels?

Hydrostatic pressure which alters at different areas of the lungs determined by their position relative to the right ventricle

71

What is zone 1 in the lungs in terms of V/Q mismatch?

Dead space
Apical regions
Alveolar pressure is greater than arterial pressure so capillaries collapse
Good ventilation but no perfusion

72

What is zone 2 in the lungs in terms of V/Q mismatch?

Recruitment zone
Middle regions
Arterial pressure is greater than alveolar pressure so perfusion
Recruitment of alveoli in systole

73

What is zone 3 of the lungs in terms of V/Q mismatch?

Distension zone
Basal regions
Arterial pressure is greater than alveolar pressure so blood flow good
some alveoli may be collapsed

74

Why might you have expansion of the dead space (zone 1) of the lungs in haemorrhage or positive pressure ventilation?

Haemorrhage
Drop in arterial pressure - less of recruitment zone perfused
Positive pressure ventilation
Rise in alveolar pressure - so alveolar pressure is greater than arterial pressure and capillaries collapse

75

What would be the ideal V/Q?

1

76

What is the average V/Q and are the values higher or lower in the apical regions and basal regions?

Average = 0.8
Apical regions - higher (as much as 3.3)
Basal regions - lower (as low as 0.6)

77

What is anatomical dead space?

Conducting airways where no gas exchange could occur

78

What is alveolar dead space?

Unperfused or poorly perfused alveoli

79

What is physiological dead space?

Anatomical dead space + alveolar dead space

80

What happens to alveolar dead space in PE?

Increased

81

What is shunt?

Deoxygenated blood reaching the left side of the heart either by bypassing the heart or failing to be oxygenated in the lungs

82

How is minute ventilation calculated (VE)?

Breathing frequency x tidal volume

83

What are the 2 parts of the brain making up the respiratory center in the brain?

The Pons and the Medullar oblongata

84

What are the 2 parts of the medulla oblongata part of the respiratory center in the brain and what kind of neurones do they contain?

1) Ventral respiratory group - contains a mixture of neurones which fire during inspiration and expiration
2) Dorsal respiratory group - only contains neurones which fire during expiration

85

What kind of neurones are the neurones in the ventral and dorsal respiratory groups of the medulla oblongata?

Autonomic neurones - they never flat line - without any in puts they still fire

86

What ensures you dont get inspiratory and expiratory neurones in the medulla oblongata firing at the same time?

Reciprocal control between the ventral respiratory group (mixed) and dorsal respiratory group (only inspiration) so you dont get both inspiratory and expriatory neurones firing at the same time

87

Why is there very little if any expiratory activity at rest?

Expiration at rest is a passive process

88

What is the role of the pons part of the respiratory center in the brain?

To control the dorsal respiratory group of the medulla oblongata

89

What are the 2 parts of the pons part of the respiratory center in the brain an what does each do?

Apneustic center - stimulates inspiratory neurones
Pneumotaxic center - inhibits inspiratory neurones
Both only act on the dorsal respiratory group of the medulla oblongata (only contains inspiratory neurones)

90

What 6 factors provide information to the respiratory center in the brain?

1) Higher brain centers - voluntary control over breathing can overule
2) Stretch receptors in the lungs
3) Irritant receptors (take a deep breath in and cough)
4) Receptors in muscles and joints
5) Peripheral chemoreceptors - respond to decreased O2, increased Co2 and increased H+
6) Central chemoreceptors - only respond to increased CO2 and increased H+