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Flashcards in Restrictive Lung Diseases Deck (40)
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1

A synonym for intrinsic restrictive lung disease is?

interstitial

2

How is restrictive lung disease defined?

less than 80% (predicted) TLC (problems inflating the lungs) via a PFT

3

How is obstructive lung disease defined?

FEV1/FCV less than 70%

4

What are the most and least common cells in the lungs?

most-macrophages
least-neutrophils

middle- lymphocytes

5

What is a normal CD4/CD8 ratio in the lungs?

2:1

6

What is sarcoidosis?

multisystem disorder of unidentified etiology characterized by non-caveating granulomas

7

What patient population is common for sarcoidosis?

young AA female adults (20-40 yo)

8

What happens to the size of alveoli in obstructive disease?

increases. EXPANDED lung disease

9

What happens to the size of conducting airways in restrictive disease?

decreases (or may not change) BUT expiratory velocity is increased

10

T or F. Lung volumes DECREASE in restrictive lung disease

T. Elastic recoil is increased

11

What is Type I restrictive disease?

disease involves lung (intrinsic)- ILD and lung resection

12

What is Type II restrictive disease?

disease involves pleura chest wall, muscles, ribs, etc. (extrinsic) and neuromuscular disorders

13

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) predominantly involve what part of the lung?

connective tissue of the alveolar wall (in between the epithelium and endothelium)

14

How would a person with restrictive lung disease breath?

short, small breaths (panting) because its too hard to inflate the lungs

15

What cases the hypoxemia of ILD (interstitial lung disease)?

V/Q mismatch (NOT diffusion defect because there is plenty of reserve length available)

16

What are some granulomatous causes of ILD?

-Berylliosis
-Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
-Sarcoidosis

17

What are some Non-granulomatous causes of ILD?

-asbestos, coal, silica
-radiation
-CIGS
-Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia
-ILD with connective tissue disease

18

What are some drug causes of ILD (non-granulomatous)?

Bleomycin, amiodarone, nitrofurantoin

19

What are some types of ILD with connective tissue disease?

-Rheumatoid lung
-Lupus lung
-Mixed CT disease

20

Symptoms of ILD?

-DYSPNEA, progressive
-dry cough
-non-specific chest pain
-fatigue, weight loss

21

Signs of of ILD?

-Tachypnea, rapid-shallow
-VELCRO crackles
-digital clubbing
-Cor-pulmonale
-Pulmonary HTN

22

Why is digital clubbing seen in ILD?

fibrosis also occurs in the nail bed

23

T or F. Expiratory airflow is normal in ILD

T. TLC and VC are reduced though

24

Most of the diagnosis of ILD can be made by what?

high-resolution CT scan

25

What radiological feature is characteristic of early-stage ILD?

ground glass appearance (can be reversed)

26

What radiological feature is characteristic of mid-stage ILD?

reticulations and nodulations (most common)

27

What radiological feature is characteristic of late-stage ILD?

honeycombing

28

How is ILD diagnosed?

-Extensive history (genetics, occupation, meds, etc.)
-H&P (velcro crackles)
-imaging
-PFTS
-BAL or lung biopsy

29

What is a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)?

Using a scope to sample alveolar cell populations

30

Normal distribution of cells in a BAL?

Macro-85%
Lymph-20%
PMNS-2%