Pharmacotherapy of Asthma and COPD Flashcards Preview

Pulmonary Week 2 > Pharmacotherapy of Asthma and COPD > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacotherapy of Asthma and COPD Deck (85)
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1

SNS innervates what in the lung?

primarily blood vessels releasing Nor which causes vasoconstriction via a-1 and a-2 receptors (blood vessels also have B2 receptors but Nor has very little affinity for them). B2 can be activated with Epi but there is very little

there isn't much PNS to vessels

2

PNS (cholinergic) innervates what in the lung?

bronchial smooth muscle (no SNS)

3

Where are Muscarinic receptors highest in the lung?

trachea and large bronchi

4

Where are adrenergic (B2) receptors highest in the lung?

small bronchioles

5

What do pre-synaptic M2 receptors do?

attenuate PNS constriction

6

What happens to M2 receptors in asthma/COPD?

eosinophils release basic proteins (cationic) that damage M2 receptors so increased Ach is released

7

What does nicotine from smoking do?

stimulates PNS and acts on nerve terminals (pre and post) and helps releases Ach (can release other neurotransmitters as well)

8

What other things can make Ach?

inflammatory cells like macrophages, T cells, and epithelial cells

9

M3 receptors are linked to what GCPR?

Gq

10

M2 receptors are linked to what GCPR?

Gi (reduced levels of cAMP)- particularly when B2 agonists are given

11

What else does M3 stimulation cause?

remodeling of bronchial smooth muscle via a-actin deposition on ECM

12

How is M3 stimulation on vessel different from bronchial smooth muscle?

stimulation (on intact endothelium) causes NO release and relaxation but in damaged endothelium, M3 agonism will cause contraction

13

What are the B2 specific, quick-onset short duration agonists?

-Albuterol
-Terbutaline

14

What are the B2 specific, slow-onset long duration agonists?

-Salmeterol and Formoterol (used always with steroids)

duration =12 hrs

15

What are the cholinergic antagonists?

Atropine, Ipratropium, Tiotropium, Imeclidinium

16

What are the methylxanthines (bronchodilators and antiinflammatory)?

Theophylline
Aminophylline

17

What are the leukotriene receptor blockers (antiinflammatory)?

Monteleukast and Zafirlukast

18

What are the leukotriene synthesis inhibtiors?

Zileuton

19

What are the Anti-IgE ABs?

Omalizumab and Dupilumab

20

What are the Anti-IL-5 ABs?

Mepolizumab and Reslizumab

21

T or F. Anticholinergic agents will not cause a change in BP when given alone

T. Although there will be M3 binding in the vessels, you will not see a change (there must be a tonic release for change to occur) but you will see some increase in HEART RATE (but not CO)

22

What is Advair?

Salmeterol + Flucticasone (LABA)

23

How do B2 agonists work?

It causes increases in cAMP!!
(via Gs), which activate PKA, which phosphorylates Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), deactivating it, and decreasing muscle contraction OR harbor Ca2+ in the ER AND

cAMP can activate EPAC (exchange protein activated by cAMP) which can reduce bronchial smooth muscle proliferation

24

T or F. Frequent use of LABA can cause de-sensitivity of the receptor

T. The GCP dissociates

25

How can B2 agonists stimulate inflammation?

activation via Gq of PLC and B-arrestin-2 (which acts via p38 and PI3K)

26

Other effects of B2 agonists?

-inhibition of mast cell mediator release (only acutely)
-inhibition of microvascular permeability increase and protein leakage
-increase in mucociliary clearance

27

How do B2 agonists increase mucociliary clearance?

increasing frequency of cilia beating

28

What else do LABAs do?

increase transcription of glucocorticoid receptors (and glucocorticoids increase B2 receptor density)

29

AEs of B2 agonists?

-fall in BP and reflex tachycardia
-Hypokalemia (prolonged QT) AT HIGH DOSE
-NV, headache
-agitation, convulsions, coma

**Albuterol= TREMORS**

30

What are the non-selective antimuscarinics?

-Atropine
-Ipratropium (Adrovent= local contact in eyes can cause pupillary dilation and ironies in intra-ocular pressure)

M1, M2, and M3 (3-5 hr duration)