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Flashcards in Review of Autonomic NS-T1 Deck (74):
1

describe the web of peripheral nervous system

Nervous System
a.CNS
b. Peripheral nervous system
1. somatic nervous system
2. autonomic nervous system
--> sympathetic NS
--> Parasympathetic NS

2

3 general descriptions of ANS

1. involuntary
2. not necessary for immediate maintenance of life
3. function to maintain homeostasis.

3

Describe the anatomy of the ANS

1. parasympathetic neurons originate in the midbrain, medulla oblongata, and sacral spinal cord
2. sympathetic neurons originate from the thoracic and lumbar portions of the spinal cord.

4

the PNS is responsible for

discreet changes in organ function

5

PNS is associated with

rest and digest

6

PNS preganglionic fibers originate

in the tactile portion of the brainstem and sacral spinal cord.

7

What cranial nerves are associated with PNS

III, VII, IX, X

8

sacral nerves of the PNS supply

the descending colon, rectum, bladder, and erectile tissue.

9

preganglionic fibers release____ and activate ___ receptors on ______

release Ach to activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors on postganglionic nerve dendrites.

10

Nn-->
Nm-->

-nicotinic neuronal tissue receptors
-nicotinic muscarinic receptors

11

PNS goes through ganglionic ____.
Then draw the basic flow. 1-->2-->, etc.

goes through ganglionic interaction before the nerve innervates the tissues.
preganglionic--> ganglion--> postganglionic--> tissue innervation.

12

nicotine activates ____

ganglionic nicotinic receptor to enhance neurotransmission.

13

postgang cholinergic nerves release__ and activate___
then draw basic flow: 1-->2--> etc

release Ach and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors.
pre-ganglionic nerve release Ach--> Nn in ganglia--> post ganglionic--> Ach--> M

14

Give location and the result of ligand binding for: Muscarinic M1

-location: CNS neurons, sympathetic postganglionic neurons, some presynaptic sites
-result of binding: formation of IP3 and DAG, and increased intracellular calcium

15

Give location and the result of ligand binding for: Muscarinic M2

-location: myocardium, smooth muscle, some presynaptic sites
-result of binding: opening of potassium channels, and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase

16

Give location and the result of ligand binding for: Muscarinic M3

-location: endocrine glands, vessels (endothelium and smooth muscle); CNS neurons
-result of binding: like M1

17

Give location and the result of ligand binding for: muscarinic M4

-location: CNS neorons; possibly vagal nerve endings
-result of binding: Like M2

18

Give location and the result of ligand binding for: Muscarinic M5

-location: vascular endothelium, especially cerebral vessels
-result of binding: like M1

19

Give location and the result of ligand binding for: nicotinic Nn

-location: postganglionic neurons, some presynaptic cholinergic terminals
-result of binding: opening of Na/K channels, depolarization

20

Give location and the result of ligand binding for: nicotinic Nm

-location: skeletal muscle neuromuscular end plates
-result of binding: opening of Na/K channels, depolarization.

21

Which M receptors do majority of work regarding the PNS

M1-M3

22

the ion channels of nicotinic receptors are

ligand gated

23

both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors bind and are activated by___

Ach

24

For the organ or process, describe its parasympathetic activity: Action and its receptor: Iris circular muscle

-action: contracts
-receptor: M3

25

For the organ or process, describe its parasympathetic activity: Action and its receptor:Ciliary muscle

-action: contracts
-receptor: M3

26

For the organ or process, describe its parasympathetic activity: Action and its receptor: Heart- SA node

-action: decelerates
-receptor- M2

27

For the organ or process, describe its parasympathetic activity: Action and its receptor: Heart- contractility

-action: decreases (atria)
-receptor: M2

28

For the organ or process, describe its parasympathetic activity: Action and its receptor: blood vessels- endothelium (drug effect)

-action: releases EDRF
-receptor: M3, M5

29

For the organ or process, describe its parasympathetic activity: Action and its receptor: bronchiolar smooth muscle

-action- contracts
- receptor: M3

30

For the organ or process, describe its parasympathetic activity: Action and its receptor: GI- smooth muscle walls

action: contracts
receptor: M3

31

For the organ or process, describe its parasympathetic activity: Action and its receptor:GI- smooth muscle sphincters

action: relaxes
receptor: M3

32

For the organ or process, describe its parasympathetic activity: Action and its receptor: GI- secretion

action: increases
receptor: M3

33

For the organ or process, describe its parasympathetic activity: Action and its receptor:Urinary smooth muscle bladder

action- contracts
receptor- M3

34

describe the control of pupil diameter by the PNS and what happens if you block M3 receptors

-cholinergic neurons innervate the circular muscles of the iris to cause constriction
- blocking M3 receptors can't get the same amount of constriction.

35

What regulates the thickness of lens

ciliary muscles

36

cholinergic neurons in eye cause

contraction of smooth muscles of the ciliary body to cause fattening of the lens and accommodate near sight.

37

when ciliary muscles constrict, tension on the lens__

decreases

38

depolarization of cholinergic nerve endings =

induced neurotransmitter release
- Ca mediated
- docking of vesicular and membrane proteins
- VAMPS bind to SNAPs on membrane
-Ca binding jams vesicles into membrane

39

Ach in synaptic space binds receptors and is then degraded __

by acetylcholinesterase to choline and acetate and then can be recycled and resynthesized.

40

First step in NT release is___ which opens

depolarization, which opens Na channels and Na moves in. depolarization is detected by voltage-dependent ion channels. Ca channels respond and open, let Ca into nerve ending. Ca facilitates docking of vesicle with membrane.

41

choline is taken into the nerve terminal and__

conjugated to acetate by choline acetyltransferase to produce Ach.

42

what inhibits choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)

hemichlonium-3

43

synthesized Ach is transported into synaptic vesicles

and released upon depolarization of the nerve terminal.

44

vesamicol inhibits

VAT, blocks Ach from entering vesicle

45

botulinum toxin blocks

calcium from binding to VAMPs-- so you don't get Ach release into synaptic cleft.

46

the sympathetic chain ganglion allows

simultaneous activation of multiple organ systems.

47

pre ganglionic nerves of sympathetic that synapse in the chain ganglia are __ and release__

generally short and release Ach as the primary NT.

48

sympathetic post-ganglionic nerves leave ___, are generally ____ and release

leave the chain ganglia to innervate specific effector organs. are generally longer than pre-ganglionic nerves. and release (-) norepi as the primary NT.

49

sweat glands don't follow standard sympathetic 2 neuron relay system:

they have a pre and post ganglionic cholinergic nerve, they are releasing Ach so they are activating muscarinic receptors that are on sweat glands, this is muscarinic receptors that are part of the sympathetic NS. The adrenal medulla- there is no post ganglionic nerve, this only gets pre ganglionic input, which means that Ach is activating this, it is a nicotinic receptor, this is a modified post ganglionic neuron, the adrenal medulla cells act as though they are a postganglionic neuron so when they are stimulated with Ach and the nicotinic receptors are activated then it releases epi.

50

precursor AA tyrosine is converted to

dopamine which is taken into vesicles and converted to NE. NE is stored in the vesicles with ATP and neuropeptide Y and released during nerve terminal depolarization.

51

synthesis of NE from tyrosine flow chart

tyrosine--> dopa--> dopamine--> NE

52

Adrenals have ___ which converts

PNMT which converts norepi to epi.

53

4 steps of released norepi

1. interacts with specific adrenergic receptors to produce tissue/organ response.
2. taken back into the nerve terminal by NET. blocked by cocaine, amitriptyline and nortriptyline. after uptake NE can be incorporated into vesicles or metabolized by MAO
3. taken into post-synaptic tissue by EMT
4. metabolized by MAO or catechol-O-methyltransferase to inactivate intermediates and finally to HVA and VMA

54

regulation of adrenergic NT release

presynaptic receptors on sympathetic nerve terminals influence the release of norepi.
1. alpha2--> adrenergic and muscarinic, M2 receptors decrease NE release
2. beta2--> adrenergic, At1- angiotensin and nicotinic, N receptors increase NE release

55

For the organ or structure listed, give its SYMPATHETIC action and receptor: eye- iris radial muscle

action: contracts
receptor- alpha1

56

For the organ or structure listed, give its SYMPATHETIC action and receptor: eye- ciliary muscle

action- relaxes
receptor- beta

57

For the organ or structure listed, give its SYMPATHETIC action and receptor: heart- SA node

action- accelerated
receptor- beta 1 and 2

58

For the organ or structure listed, give its SYMPATHETIC action and receptor: heart- ectopic pacemakers

action- accelerates
receptor- beta 1 and 2

59

For the organ or structure listed, give its SYMPATHETIC action and receptor: heart- contractility

action- increases
receptor- beta 1 and 2

60

For the organ or structure listed, give its SYMPATHETIC action and receptor: blood vessels- skin

action- contracts
receptor- alpha

61

For the organ or structure listed, give its SYMPATHETIC action and receptor: blood vessels- skeletal muscle vessels

action- relaxes
receptor- beta2

action- contracts
receptor- alpha

action- relaxes
receptor- M

62

For the organ or structure listed, give its SYMPATHETIC action and receptor: bronchiolar smooth muscle

action- relaxes
receptor- beta2

63

For the organ or structure listed, give its SYMPATHETIC action and receptor: GI- smooth muscle walls

action- relaxes
receptor- alpha2, beta2

64

For the organ or structure listed, give its SYMPATHETIC action and receptor: GI- smooth muscle sphincters

action- contracts
receptor- alpha1

65

For the organ or structure listed, give its SYMPATHETIC action and receptor: urinary bladder wall

action- relaxes
receptor- beta2

66

For the organ or structure listed, give its SYMPATHETIC action and receptor: urinary sphincter

action- contracts
receptor- alpha1

67

For the organ or structure listed, give its SYMPATHETIC action and receptor: skin- pilomotor smooth muscle

action- cotracts
receptor- alpha

68

For the organ or structure listed, give its SYMPATHETIC action and receptor: skin- sweat glands eccrine

action- increases
receptor- M

69

For the organ or structure listed, give its SYMPATHETIC action and receptor: skin- sweat glands apocrine (stress)

action- increases
receptor- alpha

70

Adrenoreceptor- location and function: alpha1

postsynaptic effector cells. formation of IP3 and DAG, increased intracellular calcium

71

Adrenoreceptor- location and function: alpha2

presynaptic adrenergic nerve terminals, platelets, lipocytes, smooth muscle. inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, decreased cAMP

72

Adrenoreceptor- location and function: beta1

postsynaptic effector cells, especially heart. presynaptic adrenergic and cholinergic nerve terminals, juxtaglomerular apparatus of renal tubules, ciliary body epithelium. stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, increased cAMP

73

Adrenoreceptor- location and function: beta2

postsynaptic effector cells, especially smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. stimulation of adenylyl cyclase and increased cAMP. Activates cardiac Gi under some condition

74

Adrenoreceptor- location and function: beta3

postsynaptic effector cells, especially lipocytes. heart. stimulation of adenylyl cyclase and increased cAMP.