Flashcards in Risk factors to addiction Deck (18):
How does everyday stress make people vulnerable?
people often report that they drink, smoke, do drugs etc to cope with daily hassles such as arguments, money worries, and workplace stress. These contribute to addictions and relapse.
Driessen et al (2008) found 30% of drug addicts and 15% of alcoholics suffered PTSD.
Evaluation for reducing stress
although smoking is used to decrease stress, the craving to smoke again actually increases stress. This means when the person does smoke, they feel like they have relieved stress (Hajek et al 2010)
Evaluation - individual differences for stress
Cloniger suggested there are 2 types of alcoholics: 1 to relieve boredom, and 1 to relieve tension. Therefore stress only explains vulnerability in some people.
How does peer pressure make people vulnerable?
Peer pressure is a reason why adolescents take drugs or start smoking, this is because smokers tend to befriend smokers and non-smokers befriend non-smokers. This therefore increases popularity.
Social learning theory
behaviours are learned through observation of others then modelling this behaviour. This is most likely to occur with who the person has most social contact with.
Social identity theory
Abrams and Hogg (1990) this suggests that group members adopt to the social norms of the group. In peer groups here the status of smoker or non-smoker is central to the groups identity people are likely to be similar to eachother.Abrams and Hogg (1990) this suggests that group members adopt to the social norms of the group. In peer groups here the status of smoker or non-smoker is central to the groups identity people are likely to be similar to eachother.
Social identity theory evaluation
Karcher and Finn 1.88% with parents, 2.64% with siblings, 8% with friends.
How can age make people vulnerable?
Brown et al (1997) suggested in early adolescence friendship groups are an important influence, whereas later its best friends/ romantic partners.
What does an addicted personality explain?
An addictive personality can explain why some people become addicted and why some people don’t.
Neurotics and psychotisism
Eysenck (1967) proposed a biological based theory:
1) Extraversion – extraverts are often under-aroused and bored to seek stimulation
2) Neuroticism – people high in neuroticism experience negative effects such as anxiety and depression
3) Psychoticism – hostility and impulsivity
Cloniger (1987) 3 traits which predispose individuals towards substance dependence:
1) Novelty seeking – new experiences
2) Harm avoidance – worry and pessimistic
3) Reward dependence – the extent to which an individual leans quickly and repeats rewarding behaviours
Evaluation - personality being correlational
Teeson et al (2002) suggests it’s difficult to establish between the effects of personality on addiction and the effects of addiction on personality.
Evidence for personality being a cause
Belin eta l (2008) allowed rats to self-administer doses of cocaine. One group were sensation seekers and immediately started with large doses. The second group were high in impulsiveness and started with lower doses but became addicted.
Support for impulsivity
Weintraub studied ps with Parkinson’s disease who were treated with a dopamine increasing drug. They found that there was a 3.5 increase in impulse-control disorders such as gambling and sex addiction. This therefore supports the idea that an increase in dopamine (high impulsivity) can lead to addiction.
Evaluation - role of the dopamine system
Buckholtz supported this by suggesting that high sensation seeking and impulsivity individuals have a heightened dopamine system which makes the reward of the behaviour more significant.