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Flashcards in Cogntive approach to addiction Deck (12):

Gambling: imitation

Self medication - Gelkopf et al (2002) proposed individuals select a behaviour to treat a symptom, for example someone with money problems may choose gambling because it is perceived to increase income


Gambling: maintenance

Irrational beliefs - gamblers faults (believing they have control). Griffiths (1994) compared 30 regular and 30 non-regular gamblers as they played the fruit machine. Regular gamblers believed they had control e.g. putting a quid in bluffs the machine


Gambling: relapse

Recall bias and just world hypothesis - Blanco et al (2000) proposed recall bias which suggests gamblers exaggerate wins and ignore looses. The just world hypothesis suggests because they lost last time they may win this time.


Gambling: research support

Li et al (2008) found that gamblers who gambled to escape life were also more likely to have other dependencies. They are also less likely to commit crime because they have other substitutes


Gambling: problems of cause and effect

Becona et al (1996) found depression is evident in gamblers however this could be a cause or effect


Gambling: problems with objective data

Davies (1992) found addicts describe their behaviour differently to different people. e.g. they may use language to exaggerate their lack of control.


Smoking: initiation

Expectancy theory - Brandon et al (1990) proposed behaviour becomes an addiction because of its expectations. Kassel et al (2007) found adolescents smoke when in a bad mood because they expect it to increase their mood


Smoking: maintenance

Automatic processing - as an addiction develops its influenced more by unconscious expectancies which explains the lack of control. Tate et al (1994) told smokers they wont experience any negative effects when quitting. They reported fewer symptoms


Smoking: relapse

Costs and benefits - smokers perceptions of the costs and benefits affect their behaviour


Smoking: loss of control evaluation

The expectancy theory doesn't explain individuals loss of control


Smoking: research support

Moolchan et al (2006) shoed nicotine patches were most effective when combined with CBT to change the expectancies of the behaviour


Smoking: importance of expectancies

Juliana (2004) found smokers reported greater expectancies that cigarettes alleviate negative moods and cravings as well as weight control compared to nicotine replacements