Flashcards in Theory of planned behaviour Deck (14):
Introduction for TPB
TOPB (Ajzen 1989) is a cognitive theory about what leads to a person’s decision to engage in a particular behaviour. The theory believes a person’s decision to engage in a particular behaviour (eg drugs) can be predicted by their intention to engage in that behaviour
What are the 3 concepts of TPB
1) Behavioural attitude – the persons attitude towards the behaviour
2) Subjective norms – the person’s awareness on social norms relating to that behaviour
3) Perceived behavioural control – is assumed to either act on the intention to behave in a particular way, or directly on the behaviour itself because of the control they believe they have over the behaviour, they are more likely to persevere for longer.
Changing behavioural attitude
the US office of national drug control policy launched a campaign in 2005 to lower teenage marijuana use. A review of its effectiveness suggested that its success was due to it changing attitudes, whereas previously campaigns had focused on the negative effects.
Changing subjective norms
Wilson (2003) found that exposing teenagers to percentages about how many people actually smoke could change their behaviour. This is because, as they are likely to be part of a smoking group, they are likely to believe smoking is much more common than it actually is.
Perceived behavioural control
Godin et al (2002) examined the extent to which TPB could explain smoking intentions and behaviours in adults intending to give up smoking. Data was collected using questionnaires and interviews. Ps were surveyed again 6 months later. They found all 3 elements helped explain intentions, but perceived behavioural control was the most important predictor for behaviour. From this they suggested interventions should focus on willpower.
ToPB proposes that a person’s self-control will predict their intentions to change behaviour. Majer et al (2004) found that this was important in prevention and interventions as by encouraging a addicts ability they were more likely to achieve abstinence.
Use of the internet
Webb eta l (2010) analysed 85 studies of interventions which promoted health change. Results showed that those based on ToPB were more successful.
Addiction to the sun
White et al (2008) examined the sun protection intentions and behaviour of young people in Australia. With 1000 ps aged 12-20 completing a questionnaire assessing the ToPB predictors. Ps reported their sun protection for the previous fortnight. Results showed that ToPB components were significant predictors of intentions, which predicted behaviour.
Evaluation: too rational
ToPB has been criticised for being too rationale, for example ignoring emotions and compulsions. This explains why some people behave irrationally against their intentions.
Evaluation: ignores other factors
self-determination theory suggests that people need to decide themselves to quit and addictions, something that this theory doesn’t consider.
Evaluation: intention rather than behavioural change
Armatige and Conner (2001) completed a meta-analysis of ToPB and found it was successful in predicting intention rather than actual behaviour. This is often found in health behaviours which involve the adoption of difficult behavioural change, for example a healthy diet. Therefore in the context of changing risky behaviours we can distinct between a motivational stage (the formation of a behavioural intention) and a post-decisional stage (behavioural initiation and maintenance).
Evaluation: methodological issues
self-report techniques and correlations.
Evaluation: intention and expectation
its argued that a distinction between intention and expectation should be made in the theory. For example a smoker may have an expectation that they will give up smoking in 5 years, however have no actual intention to do it.