Rocks and Minerals Flashcards Preview

Astrology & Geology > Rocks and Minerals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Rocks and Minerals Deck (49):
1

Describe the Earth's shape

It's a sphere

2

Describe the Earth's size

Circumference: 40,074 km
Diameter: 12,756 km

3

What are three examples that explain how the Earth is round?

1. Mast of a ship on the horizon
2. Nighttime sky
3. Lunar eclipse

4

What is density?

Mass divided by volume

5

What is the average density of the earth?

5.5 g/cc

6

What is the average density of the crust?

2.8 g/cc

7

What is the temp. of the earth just below the surface?

The average temp. of the year

8

What makes the crust of the earth hot?

Some heat is left over from the formation of the earth, other heat comes from the decay of radioactive elements

9

What is a rock forming mineral, it's minerals are abundant?

Silicates

10

What are the physical properties of a mineral?

Color, Luster, and Crystal Shape

11

What is the study of minerals and their properties?

Mineralogy

12

What is the test where they test the color of the powder of the minerals?

Streak Test

13

What is the test where they test to see if it shines like polished metal or if it is dull?

Metallic and Nonmetallic Test

14

What is the test where they test the tendency of a mineral to break along flat surfaces?

Cleavage Test

15

What is the test where they test the resistance to being scratched?

Hardness test

16

What are the four tests that they do to identify minerals?

1. Streak
2. Metallic and Nonmetallic
3. Cleavage
4. Hardness

17

What is a scale from 1-10, with 1 being the softest and 10 being the hardest?

Moh's Scale

18

Prior to 1790's how did people think the surface of the earth formed?

By a spectacular catastrophe

19

What did James Hutton say about the formation of the earth's surface?

1. The present was the key to the past
2. The geologic processes now were happening in the past
3. The features of the earth were created by the same processes over a long period of time

20

What is a group of minerals bonded together in some way?

A rock

21

What are the three types of rocks?

1. Igneous
2. Sedimentary
3. Metamorphic

22

What is the name of the rock that was formed by the cooling of magma?

Igneous Rock

23

What is the name of the rock that was formed by the hardening and cementing of layers of sediments?

Sedimentary Rock

24

What is the name of the rock that was formed when existing rocks are changed by heat and pressure?

Metamorphic Rock

25

What is the difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous rock?

Intrusive is formed when magma cools underground and extrusive is formed when magma cools above the earth

26

What determines the texture of igneous rocks?

The size, shape, and arrangements of its mineral crystals

27

What is fast moving magma?

Mafic

28

What is slow moving magma?

Felsic

29

List the types of sedimentary rocks

1. Clastic
2. Chemical
3. Organic

30

Which rock is formed by other fragments of rock?

Clastic Rock

31

Which rock is formed by mineral grains that fall out of solution?

Chemical Rock

32

Which rock is formed by remains of plants and animals?

Organic Rock

33

How do clastic rocks form?

Weathering breaks the rocks apart and natural cement holds the broken off pieces together

34

What is the arrangements of rocks in visible layers?

Stratification

35

Where are the oldest rocks found?

At the bottom

36

What occurs when large areas of rock are under intense pressure and heat that changes their form?

Regional Metamorphic

37

What occurs when hot magma forces its way over existing rock?

Contact Metamorphic

38

What is a thin layer of rock a few tens of miles thick?

Crust

39

What is 1800 miles of putty like molten rock?

Mantle

40

What is the core's size?

The size of the moon

41

What is made up of a liquid metal?

The Outer Core Layer

42

What is made up of a solid metal?

The Inner Core Layer

43

What is the source of the heat of the earth's core?

1. Impact of other planets
2. Radioactive Elements

44

What are the volcanic areas that are thought to come from hot sections of the mantle?

Hotspots

45

How does the magnetic field flow around the earth?

It flows out of the south pole, around the earth, and flows back in through the north pole

46

How would the flip of the magnetic field flow around the earth?

1. The earth would have multiple poles at random locations
2. We could experience heavy doses of solar radiation that can cause a cancer epidemic

47

Does Mars have a magnetic field? How do scientists know if it did or did not?

No, the minerals of Mars' crust showed that it had one once

48

Why didn't the earth's core cool like Mars?

Mars is smaller and cools faster

49

What would happen to the earth if we lose the magnetic field that surrounds the earth?

Solar radiation would blow away our atmosphere. Our water would disappear due to having no atmosphere.