Test 2 Flashcards Preview

Astrology & Geology > Test 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (56):
1

The time for one Earth rotation

Day

2

The time for one Earth orbit around the sun

Year

3

The approximate time for the moon to orbit Earth

Month

4

How could people of ancient times tell the time of the year?

They built ancient structures as a calendar to aid in farming and hunting

5

What two ways do planets move across the sky?

1. Direct Motion
2. Retrograde Motion

6

What is Direct Motion?

Normal eastward movement

7

What is Retrograde Motion?

Occasional westward movement

8

What did Aristotle assert about the universe?

Asserted that the universe is governed by physical laws

9

How did Aristotle describe the model of the universe?

The Earth is at the center of the universe

10

What contributions did Copernicus add to astronomy?

1. Developed a mathematical modal for a sun-centered solar system
2. Proposed the retrograde motion was really a result of parallax

11

What is the apparent motion of a body due to motion of the observer

Parallax

12

What contributions to astronomy did Tycho Brahe make?

He made precise measurements of the positions of the planets

13

What did Kepler describe about planetary orbits?

The orbit of a planet about the sun is an ellipse

14

What are Kepler's three laws?

1. The orbit of a planet about the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus
2. A line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time
3. The closer the planet is to the sun in its orbit, the faster it moves. The further away, the slower it moves

15

What happens as the planets get closer to the sun during their orbits?

They move faster

16

What is the average distance of the earth from the sun?

Astronomical Unit

17

What was Galileo the first to use?

Telescope

18

What were Galileo's discoveries?

The moons of Jupiter, the moon

19

What is speeding up?

Acceleration

20

What is the gravitational constant times the product of masses divided by the square of distance between the masses?

Force

21

What is the energy of motion?

Kinetic Energy

22

What is stored energy?

Potential Energy

23

What is heat energy?

Thermal Energy

24

What are Newton's Three Laws?

1. Law on Inertia
2. F=ma
3. Action=Reaction

25

What is the Law of Inertia?

A body remains at rest or moves in a straight line at a constant speed unless acted upon by a force

26

What is F=ma?

The amount of acceleration that a force produces depends on the mass of the object being accelerated

27

What is Action=Reaction?

Whenever one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body exerts an equal and opposite force on the first body

28

What is the force of gravity?

F=G(mass 1 x mass 2)/ d squared

29

What are two ways an object can be "weightless?"

1. The space shuttle and space stations are falling towards the earth
2. When going to the moon the distance from the earth increases, the force of gravity decreases

30

What did Einstein say about the laws if physics and the observers?

They are the same for all observers, no matter what their motion, as long as they are not accelerated

31

How is time affected by speed?

Time "moves" slower the faster an object goes

32

What is a theory of cosmic evolution that tells us how the universe has evolved, how it has changed from the beginning to today?

The Big Bang

33

What is the energy source from the sun?

Converts 700 million tons of hydrogen into 695 million tons of helium every second. The other 5 million in converted into energy.

34

What is the winter and summer solstice?

The shortest and longest days of the year

35

What is Helocentrism?

The sun is at the center of the universe

36

Describe Aristotle's model of the universe

He imagined the earth at the center of the universe

37

How did Copernicus change the model of the universe?

He moved the earth form the center of the universe and replaced it with the sun.

38

What did Kepler's calculations show?

The planets travel in elipses around the sun

39

What happens as the planets approached the sun?

They speed up

40

Do we move or do the stars move?

We move

41

What does the Bible tell us?

How to get to heaven, not how the heavens go

42

Why is Galileo considered the first modern scientist?

He documented his observations and he proposed theories

43

If there was a beginning to the universe, what does that mean?

There is going to be an end

44

What is space-time?

A fabric that combines space and time

45

How does space change in the presence of gravity?

It bends/warps space-time

46

What question religion ask?

Why was the universe created

47

What question does science ask?

How was the universe created

48

What is the affect of gravity on light?

It bends light

49

What did Father Lemaitre reason about the universe?

It was born and the universe is expanding

50

What did Hubble say about the movement of galaxies?

They are moving away from each other. The universe is always expanding.

51

If everything came from Hydrogen, then where did the other elements come from?

Hydrogen fuses to form helium and helium and hydrogen fuse to form heavier elements

52

What are the four known forces?

1. Weak Nuclear
2. Strong Nuclear
3. Gravity
4. Electromagnetism

53

What happens as the sun cools?

It expands, turns red, and gets closer to earth

54

What is dark energy?

What we don't see

55

How is dark energy formed?

It is formed at the death of stars

56

What is meant by we are part of the universe and the universe is part of us?

We are formed in the universe, we are made of elements that were formed by the Big Bang from star dust