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Flashcards in Exam Deck (87):
1

Rocky Planets
1. Distance from sun
2. Size
3. Mass
4. Composition
5. Density

1. Close
2. Small
3. Small
4. Rocky
5. High

2

Gas Planets
1. Distance from sun
2. Size
3. Mass
4. Composition
5. Density

1. Far
2. Large
3. Large
4. Solar-like
5. Low

3

What is a simple rule that gives the distance of the planets to the Sun?

Bode's Law

4

What does Bode's Law tell us?

Predicted that there should be a planet between Mars and Jupiter, but it turned out to be the asteroid belt.

5

What is the order of the planets?

Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Asteroid Belt, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

6

What are the 4 challenges about the formation of the solar system?

1. Patterns of Motion
2. Categorizing Planets
3. Asteroids and Comets
4. Exceptions to the Rules

7

look at 4 challenges sg

do it before test

8

How was our solar system formed?

it was formed from a cloud of gas and dust

9

What is a pre-star which emits energy by light and infrared rays?

Protosun

10

What is it when gas and dust come together to form our solar system?

Accretion

11

Why is our sun a second generation star?

Another star erupted and the remains came together to form our sun

12

What are impact craters evidence of?

Collisions of planetsimals

13

What are the shapes of the moons in our solar system?

Some are spherical and some are potato shaped

14

What are asteroids and comets?

Asteroids are rocks and comets are dirty snowballs

15

What causes shooting stars?

Meteoroids falling into the Earth's atmosphere and burn up

16

What is the trail of light the burning meteoroid produces?

Meteor

17

What are tiny bits of dust and rock?

Meteorites

18

What are energy-carry waves emitted by vibrating electrons?

Electromagnetic Waves

19

What are two models of light?

1. Electromagnetic Waves
2. Photons

20

What is the distance between two successive peaks in a wave?

Wavelength

21

What is the maximum departure of a wave from the undisturbed state?

Amplitude

22

What is the amount of time for a wave to repeat itself at a specific point in space?

Wave Period

23

What is the number of wave crests passing a given point per unit time?

Frequency

24

What makes up the Electromagnetic Spectrum?

Wavelength and amplitude

25

What is a range of light waves extending in wavelength from radio waves to gamma rays?

Visible Spectrum

26

What are examples of things that create a spectra?

1. Prism
2. Raindrops
3. CD's
4. Diffraction Grating

27

What is another way to produce a spectra

break "white light" into individual colors

28

Draw an atom

check sg

29

How do like and opposite charges react to each other?

Like charges repel and opposites attract

30

What are particles that transmit light?

Photons

31

What is the change in wavelength of light due to motion of the source of light?

The Doppler Effect

32

What is it called when objects move faster than the waves they produce?

Sonic Boom

33

How does the Doppler Effect help us measure a star's motion?

It causes red shifts and blue shifts. The red shifts are objects moving away from Earth and the blue shifts are the objects moving towards the Earth.

34

What happens as an object is heated?

Their color and brightness changes

35

What can we learn from a stars spectrum?

It tells us if a star is moving towards or away form Earth

36

What are the colors of the coolest to the hottest stars?

The hottest color is blue and the coolest is red/orange

37

What is the bending of light rays upon passing from one transparent medium to another?

Refraction

38

What is the place where light rays converge to a point?

Focal Point

39

What is the distance from a curved mirror or lens to its focus?

Focal Length

40

Draw a label the lens image

See SG

41

What are the two lens called in a refracting telescope?

1. Objective lens
2. Eyepiece

42

List and describe the reasons we use a telescope

1. Brighten - To make things brighter
2. Magnify - To make things bigger
3. Resolve - To make things clearer

43

How does a focal length and diameter affect brightness, magnification, and resolve?

Telescopes with a larger diameter are able to resolve smaller objects. The larger the diameter, the more details you can see.

44

What do stars twinkle?

They twinkle due to turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere

45

What is meant by invisible astronomy?

Things we can't see from the naked eye

46

What does light pollution do?

It makes it difficult to see stars in the city

47

What are stars that are formed out of enormous volumes of dust and gas?

Nebula

48

How does a supernova affect the birth of a star?

Their explosions in cold, dark nebulae trigger the birth of a star

49

What is the importance of a star's color?

It tells us how hot the star is

50

What does the HR diagram identify?

The size of the star

51

Draw the HR diagram and label where the following are found on the diagram
a. Main Sequence
b. Giant-Super giant
c. White Dwarf

See SG

52

Where do stars spend most of their time on the HR diagram?

The upper left to the lower right

53

What is the main sequence of stars where outward thermal pressure is exactly balanced by the inward force of gravity?

Hydrostatic Equilibrium

54

What are the main sequence of stars in terms of energy production?

Hydrogen fusing into helium

55

What happens when hydrogen fusion ceases?

The star can no longer support its weight. The weight from the outer layers compresses hydrogen into layers just outside the core enough to initiate shell hydrogen fusion. The extra internal heat causes the outer layers to expand into a giant star.

56

How does the mass of a star affect how long it "lives"?

The bigger the star, the faster it dies

57

What type of fusion begins at the center of a giant?

Helium fusion

58

What is the explosive burning of helium in the case of a star of low mass that occurs when the core is so dense that the matter has become degenerate?

Helium Flash

59

Describe how low mass stars die. What do they form?

1. Their core burns out
2. They form a planetary nebula and a white dwarf

60

What happens to low mass stars before they become a planetary nebula?

They expand into red giants/ supergiants

61

What do low mass stars expand into?

Planetary Nebula

62

What supports stable stars?

Gas pressure, radiation pressure, and electron degeneracy pressure

63

What happens when a low mass star loses hydrostatic equilibrium?

There is a gravitational contraction of the core. Temporary, nuclear fusion-based stability, surrounding the planetary nebula disperses. Then the remaining core becomes a white dwarf.

64

What is a relatively gentle explosion of hydrogen gas on the surface of a white dwarf in a binary star system?

A nova

65

When does a nova occur?

It occurs when the white dwarf steals mass from its companion and the external layers quickly ignite and shine brightly.

66

What do a series of fusion reactions lead to?

Luminous supergiants

67

How do high mass stars die?

They die violently by blowing themselves apart in supernova explosions

68

How long do remnants of supernova explosions last?

They can be detected for millennials afterwards

69

What happens to white dwarfs in close binary systems?

Type I supernova happens

70

What happens to the cores of Type II supernova?

They become neutron stars

71

What are supernova remnant cores that are highly compressed clumps of neutrons?

Neutron Stars

72

What are rapidly spinning neutron stars?

Pulsars

73

What did radio waves emitted by pulsars lead scientists to believe at one time?

They thought it was evidence of an alien civilization's communication system called LGM

74

How does Einstein's theory of relativity affect your description of physical reality?

It is the same regardless of the velocity at which you move

75

How does mass affect space and what does it result in?

Mass warps space and resulting in light traveling in curved paths

76

How is the speed of light measured regardless of speed or direction?

The speed of light will always be they same

77

How does the speed of light affect the length of an object?

It decreases as its speed increases

78

How does the speed of light affect the clocks?

The faster you go, the slower time goes

79

How does the speed of light affect the mass of an object?

As an object approaches the speed of light, it becomes infinitely massive

80

What does the theory of relativity do to the space time fabric? What does this predict?

1. Mass warps space resulting in light traveling in curved paths
2. It predicts black holes

81

Explain how the theory of relativity is right?

1. Light is measurably deflected by the Sun's gravitational curving of spacetime
2. Extremely accurate clocks run more slowly when being flown in airplanes
3. Some stars have their spectra shifted due to gravity
4. If we apply it to a collapsing stellar core, we find that it can be sufficiently dense to trap light in its gravity

82

What is located at the center of most galaxies?

A supermassive black hole

83

Explain how primordial black holes may have formed the universe?

The Big Bang might have been chaotic and powerful enough to have compressed tiny knots of matter into primordial black holes

84

What is the shell from within light cannot escape?

The Event Horizon

85

What are ripples in spacetime which carry energy away from black holes?

Gravitational Waves

86

What are the three properties of a black hole?

1. Mass
2. Angular Momentum
3. Electrical Charge

87

What would it be like to fall into a black hole?

It is an infinite voyage as gravitational tidal forces pull spacetime in such a way that time becomes infinitely long